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© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-1 Instructor presentation questions: firstname.lastname@example.org Chapter 15 Employee Safety and Health
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-2 Chapter 15 Outline Why employee safety and health are important Occupational safety law OSHA standards and record keeping Inspections and citations Inspection priorities The inspection itself Penalties Inspection guidelines
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-3 Chapter 15 Outline Responsibilities and rights of employers and employees Dealing with employee resistance The changing nature of OSHA Entrepreneur’s HR Management commitment and safety Strategic HR
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-4 Chapter 15 Outline What causes accidents? Unsafe conditions and other work-related factors What causes unsafe acts? Research insight
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-5 Chapter 15 Outline How to prevent accidents Reducing unsafe acts by emphasizing safety Reducing unsafe acts through selection and placement Reducing unsafe acts through training HR.Net
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-6 Chapter 15 Outline Reducing unsafe acts through motivation Behavior-based safety Conduct safety and health inspections Safety beyond the plant gate The new workplace Controlling workers’ compensation costs Before the accident After the accident Analyzing claims
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-7 Chapter 15 Outline Employee health: problems and remedies Alcoholism and substance abuse Dealing with substance abuse Workplace substance abuse and the law Legal risks Job stress and burnout Reducing job stress Burnout Research insight
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-8 Chapter 15 Outline Employee health: problems and remedies Asbestos exposure at work Computer-related health problems AIDS and the workplace Workplace smoking What you can and cannot do Smoking policies
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-9 Chapter 15 Outline Employee health: problems and remedies Violence at work Heightened security measures Improved employee screening Workplace violence training Enhanced attention to employee retention/dismissal Dismissing violent employees Dealing with angry employees Legal constraints on reducing workplace violence Summary
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-10 After Studying This Chapter You Should Be Able To: Provide a safer environment for your employees Minimize unsafe acts by employees Explain the basic facts about OSHA Explain the supervisor’s role in safety Describe and illustrate techniques for reducing accidents Explain how to deal with important occupational health problems
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-11 Strategic Overview We explored union–management relations, and negotiating agreements Employee safety is usually one of these Provide you with information about employee safety and health problems at work OSHA—the Occupational Safety and Health Act
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-12 Why Safety and Health Are Important The numbers are staggering Toll can be greater than the numbers suggest considering lives are at stake
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-13 OSHA The 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act Assures safe and healthful work places Created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Defines occupational illness
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-14 Occupational Illness OSHA creates standards and procedures to prevent injury and illness Guardrails not less than 2” x 4” or the equivalent and not less than 36” or more than 42” high, with a midrail, when required, of a 1” x 4” lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. OSHA accident form
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-15 Accident Report Procedure Link
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-16 OSHA Inspections and Citations Imminent danger Catastrophes, fatalities, and accidents Alleged violations Periodic special-emphasis inspections Random inspections and re-inspections Citations issued when problems are found
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-17 The Inspection OSHA officer arrives Explains purpose, scope and standards Employee accompanies officer Stop and question workers Discuss apparent violations May issue a citation and penalty
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-18 OSHA Penalties Range from $5,000-$70,000 Can be much higher Ongoing daily penalties Fine based on seriousness, size of company, and compliance history
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-19 Inspection Guidelines Initial contact - Refer inspector to your OSHA coordinator Check credentials Ask for reason You may ask if it’s from a current employee Notify your counsel
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-20 Inspection Guidelines Opening conference - Set focus and scope Discuss protecting trade secret areas Show you have safety programs in place
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-21 Inspection Guidelines Walk-around inspections - Accompany inspector, take detailed notes Takes photo or video if inspector does Get duplicates of samples, copies of test results Be helpful, don’t volunteer information Immediately correct any violation identified
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-22 Responsibilities of Employers and Employees Employers Provide hazard-free workplace Can seek consulting help and identification Can’t punish employee Employees Comply with standards Report problems to supervisors Can demand safety
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-23 Dealing With Employee Resistance Failure to wear hardhats or ear protectors typify problem Employers limit liability by: Get union OK to discharge Use formal arbitration Use positive reinforcement and training
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-24 The Changing Nature of OSHA Moving toward cooperation Greater use of technology Web site shows OSHA track record for all
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-25 Entrepreneurs + HR OSHA is not there just to issue citations A resource to help business lower costs Anderson Steel had help from OSHA Result was much lower workers comp costs
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-26 Safety is NO accident Management commitment is key to safety: Institutionalize commitment Analyze accidents, incidents Set specific achievable safety goals
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-27 Strategic HR Con Ed adopted safety 1 st strategy Health and environmental safety staff Thousands of pages of new safety procedures Monthly video of “close calls” Safety “time-outs” Put strategy into action = safety aware workers
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-28 What Causes Accidents Chance occurrences Unsafe conditions Unsafe employee acts
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-29 Unsafe conditions include: Improperly guarded equipment Defective equipment Hazardous procedures Unsafe storage Improper illumination Improper ventilation Unsafe Conditions
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-30 What Causes Unsafe Acts? People cause accidents Studies do not show “proneness” is the cause Remedy may be to change work assignment
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-31 Research Insight Accident causes tend to be multifaceted Researchers asked college students how frequently they had mishaps at work as well as to describe themselves What traits do you think caused some students to be more or less accident prone?
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-32 How to Prevent Accidents Reduce unsafe conditions: Design jobs to remove, reduce physical hazards Use checklists Computerized tools Solutions may or may not be obvious How would you reduce slips and falls at a factory? Checklist
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-33 Reduce Unsafe Acts By Emphasizing Safety Supervisors should: Praise employees Listen Be a good example Visit plant areas regularly Maintain open safety communications Link bonuses to safety improvements High enough
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-34 Reduce Unsafe Acts Through Selection and Placement Screening Isolate accident causing trait and test (ERI) Interview: What would you do if you saw an employee working in an unsafe way? What would you do if your supervisor gave you a task but no training on how to do it? Do you know of any reason why you would not be able to perform the various functions of this job?
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-35 Reduce Unsafe Acts Through Training New employees must be trained with safety in mind Use OSHA and training courses Must follow-up training with periodic testing demonstrable skill Multilingual testing may be needed Powerpoint presentation
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-36 Motivation to Reduce Unsafe Acts Workplace posters show a 20% reduction in accidents Safety awards like plaques and bonus cash can’t hurt Positive reinforcement is a plus when combined with training Behavior based safety training
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-37 Conduct Safety and Health Inspections Eliminate hazards Inspect Use checklists Investigate Notification system Use employee committees
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-38 Safety Summary Reduce unsafe conditions Emphasize commitment at the top Emphasize safety Emphasize safety policy Reduce unsafe acts Use selection tests Provide training Use posters Use positive reinforcement Behavior-based safety programs Conduct inspections regularly
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-39 The New Workplace and Safety Beyond the Gate Make employees the “champions of safety” Make a “Safety first” culture permeate your company Give lottery tickets to employees who have seat belts on as they go home
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-40 Controlling Workers Compensation Costs Before the accident: Take safety precautions Strictly enforce After the accident: Quick medical attention Have answers Be proactive Claims analyzing software
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-41 Employee Health: Alcohol and Substance Abuse Percentage of workers with abuse problems has dropped – about 15% report use of illicit drugs last year Cost can be high with $7000/year for each abuser How to spot a substance abuser
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-42 Dealing With Abusers Some employers must be zero tolerance Others have 3 strikes and you’re out Some guidelines: If an employee appears to be under the influence, ask how the employee feels Make a written record and follow up Use the company’s employee assistance program (EAP)
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-43 Workplace Substance Abuse and the Law Publish a policy Establish a drug-free awareness program Employees must abide by the employer’s policy and report any criminal convictions
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-44 Legal Risks Dealing with alcoholism and drugs entails legal risks Prior to implementing a drug policy ask: How will you inform workers? What testing will be required? What accommodations would you make for those who seek treatment?
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-45 Job Stress and Burnout Substance abuse can result from job stress Can you think of some factors that lead to job stress? Personality affects reaction to stress What are the consequences of stress?
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-46 Reducing Job Stress Relationships Biting Your relationship with your boss Realistic deadlines Lead time Detachment and relaxation
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-47 Reducing Job Stress Take a walk Reduce unnecessary noise Reduce trivia in your job - delegate Limit interruptions Distasteful problems Make a “worry list” – include solutions
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-48 Reducing Job Stress Good supervisor skills are important: Reduce personal conflicts Open communication Support employees’ efforts Ensure job–person fit More job control Provide EAP’s, counseling
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-49 Burnout Burnout – the total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal Definition
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-50 Burnout – Read the Signs Inability to relax Identification with your activities Meaningless advancement goals Workaholic
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-51 What Can a Burnout Candidate Do? Break your patterns Get away from it all periodically Reassess your goals in terms of their intrinsic worth Think about your work
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-52 Research Insight Do vacations fix burnout? Research says “No” Burnout returns partly within 3 days of returning to work Must remove stress causes Mid-week mini-vacations show promise
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-53 Asbestos at Work Sources of occupational respiratory disease: Asbestos, silica, lead, carbon dioxide OSHA standards to follow: Monitor air level Engineering controls Respirators
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-54 Computer-related Health Problems Short-term eye problems like burning, itching, tearing, eyestrain and eye soreness National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) says video displays do not present a radiation hazard
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-55 NIOSH Recommendations for Display Users Rest breaks Design in maximum flexibility Reduce glare A complete pre-placement vision exam
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-56 NIOSH Recommendations for Display Users Correct keyboard placement Mouse placement Wrist positioning Monitor level Let wrists rest on a pad Feet flat on floor or footrest Do these, you’ll love your computer too!
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-57 AIDS and the Workplace Legal issues usually most important Can’t single out an employee for AIDS testing Must adhere to ADA and FMLA laws Can’t force leave unless job performance has deteriorated Online AIDS resources
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-58 What to Cover in an AIDS Policy Statement No tolerance Reasonably accommodate Medical information is confidential HIV-positive employees can work Work with HIV positive employees, customers Companies must consider fears
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-59 Workplace Smoking Smoking kills and costs Can implement “no-smokers-hired” plan Becoming smoke-free may take time and require union bargaining Start a smoking ban today
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-60 Violence at Work Violence costs employers $4 billion each year – steps to take include: Heightened security Improved screening Workplace violence training Attention to retention and dismissal Dismiss violent employees Deal with angry employees
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-61 Security Measures Improve external lighting Use drop safes Install silent alarms, cameras Increase staff on duty Provide conflict resolution, nonviolent response training Close during high risks hours
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-62 Red Flags When Screening Gaps Résumé References Insubordination or violence Harassing or violent behavior
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-63 Red Flags When Screening (Cont.) Termination for cause Depression or significant psychiatric problems Drug or alcohol abuse Job, geographic changes Lost licenses or accreditations
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-64 Workplace Violence Training Use video training to help employers spot the signs of: Verbal threats Physical action Frustration Obsession
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-65 You’re Fired! Here are some reasons to consider dismissal An act of violence on or off the job Erratic behavior – loss of awareness of actions Overly defensive, obsessive, or paranoid Overly confrontational or antisocial behavior Sexually aggressive behavior Isolationist or loner tendencies Insubordinate behavior with hint of violence Tendency to overreact to criticism Exaggerated interest in war, guns and violence The commission of a serious breach of security Possession of weapons, guns and knives at work Violation of privacy of others Chronic complaining and frequent grievances A retribution-oriented or get-even attitude
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-66 Dealing With An Angry Employee Make eye contact Full attention Calm voice – be relaxed Open and honest Let person have his or her say Specific examples Carefully define the problem Explore all sides of the issue Listen
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-67 Legal Constraints on Reducing Workplace Violence Employee screening may be a legal problem in some states It is unlawful in NY to discriminate based on prior criminal convictions Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 has provisions barring minority discrimination
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-68 Chapter 15 Summary Safety is very important due to the staggering number of deaths and accidents occurring at work The purpose of OSHA is to ensure every working person a safe and healthful workplace Supervisors play a key role in monitoring workers for safety
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-69 Chapter 15 Summary Causes of accidents: Chance occurrences Unsafe conditions Unsafe acts on the part of employees Most experts doubt there are accident- prone people who have accidents regardless of the job
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-70 Chapter 15 Summary Prevent accidents by reducing unsafe conditions and reducing unsafe acts Alcoholism, drug addiction, stress, and emotional illness are four important and growing health problems among employees
© 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15-71 Chapter 15 Summary Stress and burnout are other potential health problems at work Asbestos, video display health problems, AIDS, and workplace smoking are all workplace concerns Violence against employees is an enormous problem at work
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