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15.1 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited 2009. Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "15.1 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited 2009. Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 15.1 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Chapter 15 Required Returns and the Cost of Capital

2 15.2 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. 1. Explain how a firm creates value and identify the key sources of value creation. 2. Define the overall “cost of capital” of the firm. 3. Calculate the costs of the individual components of a firm’s cost of capital - cost of debt, cost of preferred stock, and cost of equity. 4. Explain and use alternative models to determine the cost of equity, including the dividend discount approach, the capital-asset pricing model (CAPM) approach, and the before-tax cost of debt plus risk premium approach. 5. Calculate the firm’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and understand its rationale, use, and limitations. 6. Explain how the concept of economic Value added (EVA) is related to value creation and the firm’s cost of capital. 7. Understand the capital-asset pricing model's role in computing project-specific and group-specific required rates of return. After Studying Chapter 15, you should be able to:

3 15.3 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Creation of Value Overall Cost of Capital of the Firm Project-Specific Required Rates Group-Specific Required Rates Total Risk Evaluation Creation of Value Overall Cost of Capital of the Firm Project-Specific Required Rates Group-Specific Required Rates Total Risk Evaluation Required Returns and the Cost of Capital

4 15.4 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Growth phase of product cycle Barriers to competitive entry Other -- e.g., patents, temporary monopoly power, oligopoly pricing Cost Marketing and price Perceived quality Superior organizational capability Industry Attractiveness Competitive Advantage Key Sources of Value Creation

5 15.5 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Cost of Capital is the required rate of return on the various types of financing. The overall cost of capital is a weighted average of the individual required rates of return (costs). Overall Cost of Capital of the Firm

6 15.6 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Type of Financing Mkt ValWeight Long-Term Debt $ 35M 35% Preferred Stock$ 15M 15% Common Stock Equity $ 50M 50% $ 100M 100% Market Value of Long-Term Financing

7 15.7 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Cost of Debt Cost of Debt is the required rate of return on investment of the lenders of a company. k i = k d ( 1 – T ) P 0 = I j + P j (1 + k d ) j  n j=1 Cost of Debt

8 15.8 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has $1,000 par value zero-coupon bonds outstanding. BW bonds are currently trading at $ with 10 years to maturity. BW tax bracket is 40%. $ = $0 + $1,000 (1 + k d ) 10 Determination of the Cost of Debt

9 15.9 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. (1 + k d ) 10 = $1,000 / $ = (1 + k d )= (2.5938) (1/10) = 1.1 k d = 0.1 or 10% k i = 10% ( 1 –.40 ) k i 6% k i = 6% Determination of the Cost of Debt

10 15.10 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Cost of Preferred Stock Cost of Preferred Stock is the required rate of return on investment of the preferred shareholders of the company. k P = D P / P 0 Cost of Preferred Stock

11 15.11 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has preferred stock outstanding with par value of $100, dividend per share of $6.30, and a current market value of $70 per share. k P = $6.30 / $70 k P 9% k P = 9% Determination of the Cost of Preferred Stock

12 15.12 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Dividend Discount Model Dividend Discount Model Capital-Asset Pricing Model Capital-Asset Pricing Model Before-Tax Cost of Debt plus Risk Premium Before-Tax Cost of Debt plus Risk Premium Cost of Equity Approaches

13 15.13 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. cost of equity capital The cost of equity capital, k e, is the discount rate that equates the present value of all expected future dividends with the current market price of the stock. D 1 D 2 D (1 + k e ) 1 (1 + k e ) 2 (1 + k e ) P 0 =   Dividend Discount Model

14 15.14 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. constant dividend growth assumption The constant dividend growth assumption reduces the model to: k e = ( D 1 / P 0 ) + g Assumes that dividends will grow at the constant rate “g” forever. Constant Growth Model

15 15.15 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has common stock outstanding with a current market value of $64.80 per share, current dividend of $3 per share, and a dividend growth rate of 8% forever. k e = ( D 1 / P 0 ) + g k e = ($3(1.08) / $64.80) k e % k e = = 0.13 or 13% Determination of the Cost of Equity Capital

16 15.16 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. D 0 (1 + g 1 ) t D a (1 + g 2 ) t–a (1 + k e ) t P 0 = growth phases assumption leads to the following formula (assume 3 growth phases): The growth phases assumption leads to the following formula (assume 3 growth phases):    t=1 a t=a+1 b t=b+1  D b (1 + g 3 ) t–b +  Growth Phases Model (1 + k e ) t

17 15.17 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. The cost of equity capital, k e, is equated to the required rate of return in market equilibrium. The risk-return relationship is described by the Security Market Line (SML). k e = R j = R f + (R m – R f )  j Capital Asset Pricing Model

18 15.18 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has a company beta of Research by Julie Miller suggests that the risk-free rate is 4% and the expected return on the market is 11.4% k e = R f + (R m – R f )  j = 4% + (11.4% – 4%)1.25 k e 13.25% k e = 4% % = 13.25% Determination of the Cost of Equity (CAPM)

19 15.19 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. The cost of equity capital, k e, is the sum of the before-tax cost of debt and a risk premium in expected return for common stock over debt. k e = k d + Risk Premium* * Risk premium is not the same as CAPM risk premium Before-Tax Cost of Debt Plus Risk Premium

20 15.20 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) typically adds a 2.75% premium to the before-tax cost of debt. k e = k d + Risk Premium = 10% % k e 12.75% k e = 12.75% Determination of the Cost of Equity (k d + R.P.)

21 15.21 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer % Constant Growth Model13.00% 13.25% Capital Asset Pricing Model13.25% 12.75% Cost of Debt + Risk Premium12.75% Comparison of the Cost of Equity Methods Generally, the three methods will not agree. We must decide how to weight – we will use an average of these three.

22 15.22 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Cost of Capital = k x (W x ) WACC = 0.35(6%) (9%) (13%) WACC = = or 9.95%  n x=1 Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)

23 15.23 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. 1.Weighting System Marginal Capital Costs Capital Raised in Different Proportions than WACC Limitations of the WACC

24 15.24 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. 2. Flotation Costs 2. Flotation Costs are the costs associated with issuing securities such as underwriting, legal, listing, and printing fees. a.Adjustment to Initial Outlay b.Adjustment to Discount Rate Limitations of the WACC

25 15.25 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. A measure of business performance. It is another way of measuring that firms are earning returns on their invested capital that exceed their cost of capital. Specific measure developed by Stern Stewart and Company in late 1980s. Economic Value Added

26 15.26 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. EVA = NOPAT – [Cost of Capital x Capital Employed] Since a cost is charged for equity capital also, a positive EVA generally indicates shareholder value is being created. Based on Economic NOT Accounting Profit. NOPAT – net operating profit after tax is a company’s potential after-tax profit if it was all- equity-financed or “unlevered.” Economic Value Added

27 15.27 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Add Flotation Costs (FC) to the Initial Cash Outlay (ICO). Reduces Impact: Reduces the NPV NPV =  n t=1 CF t (1 + k) t – ( ICO + FC ) Adjustment to Initial Outlay (AIO)

28 15.28 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Subtract Flotation Costs from the proceeds (price) of the security and recalculate yield figures. Increases Impact: Increases the cost for any capital component with flotation costs. decreases Result: Increases the WACC, which decreases the NPV. Adjustment to Discount Rate (ADR)

29 15.29 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Initially assume all-equity financing. Determine project beta. Calculate the expected return. Adjust for capital structure of firm. Compare cost to IRR of project. Use of CAPM in Project Selection: Determining Project-Specific Required Rates of Return

30 15.30 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Locate a proxy for the project (much easier if asset is traded). Plot the Characteristic Line relationship between the market portfolio and the proxy asset excess returns. Estimate beta and create the SML. Determining the SML: Difficulty in Determining the Expected Return

31 15.31 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. SML X X X X X X X O O O O O O O SYSTEMATIC RISK (Beta) EXPECTED RATE OF RETURN RfRf Accept Reject Project Acceptance and/or Rejection

32 15.32 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. 1. Calculate the required return for Project k (all-equity financed). R k = R f + (R m – R f )  k 2.Adjust for capital structure of the firm (financing weights). Weighted Average Required Return = [ k i ][% of Debt] + [ R k ][% of Equity] Determining Project-Specific Required Rate of Return

33 15.33 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Assume a computer networking project is being considered with an IRR of 19%. Examination of firms in the networking industry allows us to estimate an all-equity beta of 1.5. Our firm is financed with 70% Equity and 30% Debt at k i =6%. The expected return on the market is 11.2% and the risk-free rate is 4%. Project-Specific Required Rate of Return Example

34 15.34 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. k e = R f + (R m – R f )  j = 4% + (11.2% – 4%)1.5 k e 14.8% k e = 4% % = 14.8% WACC 12.16% WACC = 0.30(6%) (14.8%) = 1.8% %= 12.16% IRR 19%WACC 12.16% IRR = 19% > WACC = 12.16% Do You Accept the Project?

35 15.35 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Initially assume all-equity financing. Determine group beta. Calculate the expected return. Adjust for capital structure of group. Compare cost to IRR of group project. Use of CAPM in Project Selection: Determining Group-Specific Required Rates of Return

36 15.36 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Group-Specific Required Returns Company Cost of Capital Systematic Risk (Beta) Expected Rate of Return Comparing Group-Specific Required Rates of Return

37 15.37 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Amount of non-equity financing relative to the proxy firm. Adjust project beta if necessary. Standard problems in the use of CAPM. Potential insolvency is a total-risk problem rather than just systematic risk (CAPM). Qualifications to Using Group-Specific Rates

38 15.38 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Risk–Adjusted Discount Rate Approach (RADR) The required return is increased (decreased) relative to the firm’s overall cost of capital for projects or groups showing greater (smaller) than “average” risk. Project Evaluation Based on Total Risk

39 15.39 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Discount Rate (%) RADR – “high” risk at 15% (Reject!) RADR – “low” risk at 10% (Accept!) Adjusting for risk correctly may influence the ultimate Project decision. Net Present Value $000s –4 RADR and NPV

40 15.40 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Probability Distribution Approach Acceptance of a single project with a positive NPV depends on the dispersion of NPVs and the utility preferences of management. Project Evaluation Based on Total Risk

41 15.41 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. B C A Indifference Curves STANDARD DEVIATION EXPECTED VALUE OF NPV Curves show “HIGH” Risk Aversion Firm-Portfolio Approach

42 15.42 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. B C A Indifference Curves STANDARD DEVIATION EXPECTED VALUE OF NPV Curves show “MODERATE” Risk Aversion Firm-Portfolio Approach

43 15.43 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. B C A Indifference Curves STANDARD DEVIATION EXPECTED VALUE OF NPV Curves show “LOW” Risk Aversion Firm-Portfolio Approach

44 15.44 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer.  j =  ju [ 1 + (B/S)(1 – T C ) ]   j : Beta of a levered firm.   ju : Beta of an unlevered firm (an all-equity financed firm). B/S:Debt-to-Equity ratio in Market Value terms. T C :The corporate tax rate. Adjusting Beta for Financial Leverage

45 15.45 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Adjusted Present Value (APV) is the sum of the discounted value of a project’s operating cash flows plus the value of any tax-shield benefits of interest associated with the project’s financing minus any flotation costs. APV = Unlevered Project Value + Value of Project Financing Adjusted Present Value

46 15.46 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Assume Basket Wonders is considering a new $425,000 automated basket weaving machine that will save $100,000 per year for the next 6 years. The required rate on unlevered equity is 11%. BW can borrow $180,000 at 7% with $10,000 after-tax flotation costs. Principal is repaid at $30,000 per year (+ interest). The firm is in the 40% tax bracket. NPV and APV Example NPV and APV Example

47 15.47 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. NPV to an all-equity- financed firm What is the NPV to an all-equity- financed firm? NPV = $100,000[PVIFA 11%,6 ] – $425,000 NPV = $423,054 – $425,000 NPV– $1,946 NPV = – $1,946 Basket Wonders NPV Solution

48 15.48 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. APV What is the APV? First, determine the interest expense. Int Yr 1($180,000)(7%) = $12,600 Int Yr 2( 150,000)(7%) = 10,500 Int Yr 3( 120,000)(7%) = 8,400 Int Yr 4( 90,000)(7%) = 6,300 Int Yr 5( 60,000)(7%) = 4,200 Int Yr 6( 30,000)(7%) = 2,100 Basket Wonders APV Solution

49 15.49 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Second, calculate the tax-shield benefits. TSB Yr 1($12,600)(40%) = $5,040 TSB Yr 2( 10,500)(40%) = 4,200 TSB Yr 3( 8,400)(40%) = 3,360 TSB Yr 4( 6,300)(40%) = 2,520 TSB Yr 5( 4,200)(40%) = 1,680 TSB Yr 6( 2,100)(40%) = 840 Basket Wonders APV Solution

50 15.50 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. Third, find the PV of the tax-shield benefits. TSB Yr 1($5,040)(.901) = $4,541 TSB Yr 2( 4,200)(.812) = 3,410 TSB Yr 3( 3,360)(.731) = 2,456 TSB Yr 4( 2,520)(.659) = 1,661 TSB Yr 5( 1,680)(.593) = 996 PV = $13,513 TSB Yr 6( 840)(.535) = 449 PV = $13,513 Basket Wonders APV Solution

51 15.51 Van Horne and Wachowicz, Fundamentals of Financial Management, 13th edition. © Pearson Education Limited Created by Gregory Kuhlemeyer. APV What is the APV? APV = NPV + PV of TS – Flotation Cost APV = –$1,946 + $13,513 – $10,000 APV$1,567 APV = $1,567 Basket Wonders NPV Solution


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