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Chapter 7 Vitamins. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Vitamins. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Vitamins

2 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins

3 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamins in MyPyramid

4 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin Talk Vitamins are organic compounds essential in the diet to promote growth and maintenance. Water-soluble vitamins include the B vitamins and vitamin C. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E and K. B vitamins were originally thought to be one chemical substance, but are many different substances. That is the reason for B 1, B 2, B 12, etc.

5 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Fortified and Enriched Foods Fortification: the process of adding nutrients to foods. The added nutrients are generally not naturally found in the food, such as fortifying orange juice with calcium. Enrichment: adding nutrients back to foods that have lost nutrients due to processing. An example is the addition of B vitamins to white rice.

6 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Keeping Vitamins in Your Food

7 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Absorbing Vitamins

8 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Bioavailability of Vitamins Vitamins must be absorbed by the body in order to perform their functions. Approx 40–90% of vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine. Fat-soluble vitamins require fat in the diet to be absorbed. Water-soluble vitamins may require transport molecules or specific molecules in the GI tract. Some vitamins are absorbed in inactive provitamin or vitamin precursor forms that must be converted into active forms by the body.

9 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin Functions

10 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamins as Coenzymes

11 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Vitamins

12 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamins on Food Labels

13 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins: Thiamin Thiamin was the first B vitamin to be identified, and is also called B 1. Thiamin is widely available in foods, especially in enriched grains, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds. Thiamin assists in energy production, carbohydrate metabolism, the production of ribose and the health of the nervous system.

14 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Thiamin

15 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Riboflavin Dairy products are a good source of riboflavin. Plant sources of riboflavin include mushrooms, broccoli, asparagus, whole grains and green, leafy vegetables. Animal sources include red meat, poultry and fish. Riboflavin is easily destroyed by heat and exposure to light. Riboflavin is an important component in the citric acid cycle and assists the body with the absorption of other vitamins.

16 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Riboflavin

17 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Niacin Niacin is added to enriched flours in North America. A niacin deficiency disease is pellagra. Niacin can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan if the diet is adequate in tryptophan. Niacin plays an important role in the production of energy and in general metabolism. Two forms of niacin are nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.

18 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Niacin Symptoms of advanced pellagra include the 3 D’s: dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. Niacin toxicity from overuse of niacin supplements can result in elevated blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, elevated blood sugar levels and impaired liver function.

19 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Niacin

20 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin B 6 Also called pyridoxine, a group of compounds including pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine. All three forms can be converted into pyridoxal phosphate, required for many enzyme reactions in the body. Deficiency may result in anemia, due to impaired hemoglobin synthesis and neurotransmitter issues.

21 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin B 6

22 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin B 6

23 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin B 6

24 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Folic Acid (Folate) Folate coenzymes are needed for DNA synthesis and the metabolism of some amino acids. Low folate intake in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects. Low folate intake has been associated with an increased risk of heart disease related to the metabolism of the amino acid homocysteine.

25 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects

26 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Folate Deficiency and Anemia

27 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Interaction of Folic Acid and Vitamin B 12

28 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Folic Acid in the Diet

29 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin B 12 Pernicious anemia is a form of anemia that does not respond to iron supplementation. Vitamin B 12 is necessary for the proper absorption of iron in the body. Excessive intake of folic acid can mask B12 deficiencies. Vitamin B 12 is most readily absorbed from animal products. Vegan diets need to be supplemented with readily- absorbable forms of B 12. Atrophic gastritis may lead to B 12 deficiencies.

30 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Absorption of B 12

31 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. B 12 on the Menu

32 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin C Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate. Vitamin C in foods can be destroyed by oxygen, light and heat, as well as through contact with copper or iron cookware. Vitamin C functions as an antioxidant in the body, helps maintain the immune system, is important in the production of collagen and aids in iron absorption.

33 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin C on the Menu

34 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary of Water-Soluble Vitamins and Choline

35 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary of Water-Soluble Vitamins and Choline

36 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Fat-Soluble Vitamins Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins require bile and dietary fat for absorption. Once absorbed, they are transported with fats through the lymphatic system in chylomicrons before entering the blood. Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in body fat, meaning that intakes can vary without a risk of deficiency (as long as there are average intakes over time) and they are not easily excreted. This increases the risk of toxicity with high intakes.

37 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin A Vitamin A is found preformed (from animal products or supplements) or in precursor form (from plant foods) in the diet. Vitamin A plays a key role in night vision, cell differentiation and growth regulation. Preformed vitamin A compounds are known as retinoids. Plants contain precursors to vitamin A known as carotenoids. A derivative of retinoic acid is used topically to treat certain skin conditions.

38 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin A on the Menu

39 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin A and the Visual Cycle

40 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin A Deficiency and Toxicity Vitamin A deficiency is a threat to the health, sight and lives of millions of children around the world. Vitamin A deficiency can be caused by insufficient intake of vitamin A, fat, protein or zinc. Preformed vitamin A can be toxic if taken in high amounts. Medications made from vitamin A, such as Retin A or Accutane, can cause serious side effects.

41 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin D Vitamin D is known as the “sunshine” vitamin because it can be produced in the skin by exposure to UV light. Only a few foods are natural sources of Vitamin D, including liver, fatty fish, fish oils and egg yolks. Vitamin D can be toxic at high levels, so there are strict limitations on the categories of foods that can be vitamin D-fortified. Vitamin D is important for bone health, normal functioning of the parathyroid gland and regulation of the immune system.

42 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin D Activation

43 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin D Deficiency and Toxicity When vitamin D is deficient, dietary calcium cannot be absorbed efficiently and there can be improper bone mineralization and abnormalities in bone structure. In children, vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets; in adults, osteomalacia. Oversupplementation of vitamin D can result in high blood and urine calcium concentrations, depositing of calcium in blood vessels and kidneys, cardivascular damage and possibly death.

44 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin D on the Menu

45 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin E Vitamin E is also called tocopherol. Vitamin E has antioxidant properties. Alpha-tocopherol is the form of Vitamin E absorbed by the human body. Vitamin E absorption depends on normal fat absorption. Once absorbed, Vitamin E is incorporated into chylomicrons. Vitamin E deficiency in newborns might result in hemolytic anemia.

46 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin E as an Antioxidant

47 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin E on the Menu

48 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin K Vitamin K was named for “koagulation,” the Danish word for coagulation. Vitamin K is found in several forms, including phylloquinone and menaquinone. Abnormal blood coagulation is the major symptom of vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K deficiency is very rare in the US.

49 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vitamin K on the Menu

50 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary of Fat-Soluble Vitamins

51 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements can be another source of vitamins in the modern diet. Dietary supplements can contain some combination of vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals, amino acids, enzymes or extracts. Dietary supplements cannot replace the benefits of a diet containing a wide variety of foods. Dietary supplement production is not supervised by the FDA. Dietary supplements may be beneficial, with a physician’s guidance, for some older adults, people with restricted diets, people taking some medications, cigarette and alcohol users, some infants and children and people following a vegan diet.

52 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ingredients in Herbal Supplements

53 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ingredients in Herbal Supplements

54 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What Should I Eat? Vitamins Focus on foliage for folate, vitamin A, and vitamin K Have a heaping helping of leafy greens. Snack on an orange—you’ll get your folate. Eat beans—such as lentils and kidneys—in soups and stews. Utilize a hidden source of beta-carotene by eating something dark green and leafy. B (vitamin) sure Don’t forget the whole grains to get vitamin B 6. Enrich your diet with some enriched grains. Have a bowl of fortified breakfast cereal for B 12 insurance. Get your antioxidants Go with nuts and seeds to increase your vitamin E. Think color when choosing your five fruits and veggies each day. Add carrot sticks to your lunch or snack to increase your vitamin A intake. Savor some strawberries and kiwis for dessert—they are loaded with vitamin C. Soak up some D Get outside to stay fit and make some vitamin D. Have three servings of dairy per day to ensure that you get enough vitamin D.

55 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. End of Chapter 7 Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein..


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