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1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 45 Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders.

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Presentation on theme: "1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 45 Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders."— Presentation transcript:

1 1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 45 Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders

2 2Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Learning Objectives Identify nursing assessment data related to the functions of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Describe tests and procedures used to diagnose disorders of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and nursing responsibilities relevant for each. Describe the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, complications, and treatment of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and hypoparathyroidism. Assist in the development of nursing care plans for patients with disorders of the thyroid or parathyroid glands.

3 3Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. The Thyroid Gland Anatomy and physiology Located in lower portion of the anterior neck Two lobes, one on each side of trachea Lobes connected in front of trachea by a narrow bridge of tissue called the isthmus Plays a major role in regulating the bodys rate of metabolism and growth and development Produces thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine, calcitonin

4 4Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 45-1

5 5Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Age-Related Changes in Thyroid Function Increased incidence of thyroid nodules Serum levels of T 4 remain approximately the same in a healthy older person, but levels of T 3 often decline Incidence of hypothyroidism increases with age, especially among women

6 6Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Assessment of the Thyroid Gland Health history Changes in energy level, sleep patterns, personality, mental function, emotional state Unexplained weight changes In the review of systems, changes in menstrual cycles, sexual function, hydration, bowel elimination pattern, and tolerance of heat and cold

7 7Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Assessment of the Thyroid Gland Physical examination Vital signs and height and weight Facial expression and characteristics as well as mental alertness Inspect/palpate skin for moisture, temperature, texture Hair texture Examine the eyes for exophthalmos (bulging) Inspect the neck for enlargement typical of goiter. Observe the hands for tremor

8 8Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Assessment of the Thyroid Gland Diagnostic tests and procedures Serum T 3, free T 4, T 4, and TSH Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test Radioactive iodine (RAI) uptake test Thyroid ultrasonography MRI or CT

9 9Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hyperthyroidism

10 10Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Characteristics of Hyperthyroidism Abnormally increased synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones Graves disease Most common type of hyperthyroidism Autoimmune disorder Antibodies activate TSH receptors, which in turn stimulate thyroid enlargement and hormone secretion Most often develops in young women

11 11Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Multinodular Goiter Often in women in their 60s and 70s Likely develop in people who have had goiter for a number of years Caused by small thyroid nodules that secrete excess thyroid hormone Increased hormone production is independent of TSH Nodules can be benign or malignant Symptoms are usually less severe

12 12Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Signs and Symptoms Weight loss and nervousness with a mild form In more severe cases Restlessness, irritable behavior, sleep disturbances, emotional lability, personality changes, hair loss, and fatigue Weight loss, even when the patient is eating well, is common Poor tolerance of heat and excessive perspiration Changes in menstrual and bowel patterns Warm, moist, velvety skin; fine hand tremors; swelling of the neck; and ophthalmopathy including exophthalmos Tearing, light sensitivity, decreased visual acuity, and swelling around orbit of the eye Tachycardia, increased systolic blood pressure, sometimes atrial fibrillation

13 13Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 45-2

14 14Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Complications Thyrotoxicosis Excessive stimulation caused by elevated thyroid hormone levels that produce dangerous tachycardia and hyperthermia

15 15Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Diagnosis Decreased TSH and elevated serum T 4 Measurement of thyroid-stimulating antibodies and results of a radioactive iodine uptake test to diagnose Graves disease

16 16Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Treatment Drug therapy Antithyroid drugs Thionamides and iodides Radioactive iodine Accumulates in the thyroid gland, where it causes destruction of thyroid tissue Surgical treatment Subtotal thyroidectomy

17 17Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Care of the Nonsurgical Patient Assessment Activity tolerance, heat tolerance, bowel elimination pattern, appetite, weight changes, and food intake Mental-emotional state, adaptation to the condition, and understanding of the treatment Measure vital signs and height and weight Skin texture and edema

18 18Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Care of the Nonsurgical Patient Decreased Cardiac Output Disturbed Sleep Pattern Hyperthermia Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements Risk for Injury Disturbed Sensory Perception Diarrhea

19 19Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Care of the Patient Having a Thyroidectomy Assessment: preoperative Identify and address learning needs Teaching: primary preoperative nursing intervention Goals: understanding of the usual preoperative and postoperative procedures and decreased anxiety Assessment: postoperative Assess and document respiratory status, level of consciousness, wound drainage or bleeding, voice quality, comfort, and neuromuscular irritability

20 20Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Care of the Patient Having a Thyroidectomy Interventions Ineffective Airway Clearance Decreased Cardiac Output Disturbed Body Image Acute Pain Risk for Infection

21 21Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hypothyroidism Inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones Cretinism If not treated early, hypothyroidism during infancy causes permanent physical and mental retardation In adults can be serious but usually reversible with treatment Myxedema Facial edema from severe, long-term hypothyroidism

22 22Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 45-4

23 23Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 45-5

24 24Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hypothyroidism

25 25Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Etiology and Risk Factors Primary Atrophy of the thyroid gland after years of Graves disease or thyroiditis Treatment for hyperthyroidism Dietary iodine deficiency High intake of goitrogens Defects in thyroid hormone synthesis Secondary Pituitary or hypothalamic disorders Thyroidectomy

26 26Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Signs and Symptoms Swelling of the lips and eyelids Dry, thick skin Bruising Thin, coarse hair Hoarseness Generalized nonpitting edema Facial edema May seem slow, depressed, or apathetic

27 27Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Diagnosis Based on laboratory determination of free T 4 and TSH Complications Myxedema coma Medical treatment Hormone replacement therapy Levothyroxine (Synthroid) or liothyronine (Cytomel)

28 28Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc Assessment

29 29Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Interventions Activity Intolerance Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Requirements Hypothermia Constipation Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity Decreased Cardiac Output Disturbed Thought Processes Disturbed Body Image Self-Care Deficit

30 30Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Simple Goiter Thyroid enlargement with normal hormone production Causes Iodine deficiency and long-term exposure to goitrogens The gland may enlarge to compensate for hypothyroidism Sometimes the enlarged gland produces excess hormones, making the patient hyperthyroid

31 31Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Simple Goiter Treatment If mild enlargement and normal hormones, no intervention Some patients need hormone replacement therapy Surgery indicated if pressure on the trachea or esophagus or if the condition is disfiguring

32 32Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 45-6

33 33Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Goiter Nodules Can be benign or malignant Physician may order a scan that uses radioactive iodine; determines cancer Nodular goiters usually surgically removed In benign conditions, only the nodule may be removed

34 34Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Thyroid Cancer Uncommon Fatal in less than 1% of all cases Early stages: nodule that can be felt on thyroid If cancer spreads, enlarged lymph nodes felt in the neck Patient may not show dramatic changes in thyroid hormone levels Total thyroidectomy is the usual treatment If malignancy spreads beyond thyroid gland, more radical surgery may be indicated

35 35Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. The Parathyroid Glands

36 36Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Anatomy and Physiology Small glands located on back of thyroid Occasionally found in the mediastinum as well Usually 4 parathyroids; some people have more Embedded in thyroid, but function independently Secrete only one hormone, but it is vital Parathyroid hormone, or parathormone (PTH), plays a critical role in regulating the serum calcium level

37 37Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 45-7

38 38Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Nursing Assessment Health history Change in mental-emotional status, such as memory problems, irritability, or personality changes Musculoskeletal problems, including weakness, skeletal pain, backache, and muscle twitching or spasms Urinary frequency, polyuria, urinary calculi (stones), or constipation Head/neck radiation, renal calculi, chronic renal failure Medications, including calcium and vitamin D supplements

39 39Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Nursing Assessment Physical examination Heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, respiratory effort, muscle strength, muscle twitching, and hair and skin texture Chvosteks sign Spasm of facial muscle when facial nerve tapped Trousseaus sign Carpopedal spasm when a blood pressure cuff is inflated above the patients systolic blood pressure and left in place for 2 to 3 minutes

40 40Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 45-3

41 41Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Blood tests Calcium, phosphate, creatinine, uric acid, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, and PTH Radiographs Dental examination Electrocardiogram

42 42Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hyperparathyroidism

43 43Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Characteristics Secretion of excess parathormone (PTH) Causes Tumor (an adenoma); can be benign or malignant Vitamin D deficiencies, malabsorption, chronic renal failure, and elevated serum phosphate Elevation of serum calcium (hypercalcemia) High levels of PTH cause calcium to shift from the bones into the bloodstream If untreated, severe demineralization of bone tissue

44 44Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Signs and Symptoms Symptoms vague at first Weakness, lethargy, depression, anorexia, and constipation Other findings include mental and personality changes, cardiac dysrhythmias, weight loss, and urinary calculi

45 45Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Diagnosis Elevated serum calcium and decreased serum phosphate Elevated PTH and 24-hour urine calcium Skeletal radiographs and bone density studies CT, MRI, ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration, and selective arteriography

46 46Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Treatment Surgical intervention Parathyroidectomy Surgeon attempts to leave some parathyroid tissue to prevent hypoparathyroidism

47 47Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Treatment Drug therapy Sodium and phosphorus replacements Calcitonin (Calcimar), gallium nitrate (Ganite), bisphosphonates (etidronate, pamidronate), and plicamycin (Mithracin) inhibit release of calcium from bones Furosemide (Lasix): promotes excretion of calcium in the urine Propranolol reduces PTH secretion

48 48Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Assessment Monitor vital signs, urine output, weight, muscle strength, bowel elimination, and digestive disturbances

49 49Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Interventions Activity Intolerance and Risk for Injury Impaired Urinary Elimination Constipation Disturbed Thought Processes Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements

50 50Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Postoperative Care Airway obstruction from accumulated fluid and blood in surgical site compressing the trachea Monitor and document the respiratory rate and effort and the pulse rate Increasing pulse and respiratory rates, especially accompanied by restlessness, suggest inadequate oxygenation Notify physician of indications of respiratory distress Keep an emergency tracheotomy tray at the bedside in the event of acute obstruction

51 51Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Postoperative Care Airway obstruction related to severe hypocalcemia Be alert for tetany Tingling around mouth and in the fingers It may progress to severe muscle spasms or cramps and even to laryngospasm Treated with oral or intravenous calcium supplements

52 52Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Postoperative Care Protect suture line from stress Show patient how to support the head when changing positions Inspect dressing and back of the neck for bleeding Elevate patients head to reduce swelling

53 53Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hypoparathyroidism Deficiency of parathormone (PTH) Uncommon condition From accidental removal of/damage to parathyroid glands during surgery Primary hypoparathyroidism can be caused by an autoimmune process and by several conditions, including Wilsons disease (copper overload) Inadequate secretion of PTH leads to hypocalcemia Severe hypocalcemia can progress to convulsions and respiratory obstruction due to spasms of the larynx

54 54Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hypoparathyroidism Signs and symptoms Painful muscle cramps, fatigue and weakness, tingling and twitching of the face and hands, mental and emotional changes, dry skin, and urinary frequency With severe hypocalcemia, difficulty breathing, convulsions, and cardiac dysrhythmias

55 55Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hypoparathyroidism Medical diagnosis Low serum calcium, elevated serum phosphate, low urine calcium, and sometimes low serum magnesium Chvosteks sign and Trousseaus sign Medical treatment Acute hypoparathyroidism: sometimes parenteral PTH Severe hypocalcemia: with intravenous calcium salts Chronic hypoparathyroidism: with oral calcium salts and a form of vitamin D

56 56Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hypoparathyroidism Interventions Administer drugs as ordered If recent seizure activity or if patient shows severe neuromuscular irritability, follow seizure precautions Pulse/blood pressure for dysrhythmias/heart failure Teach signs and symptoms of calcium imbalances, and provide instructions for self-medication Advise patient to carry medical ID card to alert health care providers in event of an emergency


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