Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Water Management in the Ebro Basin Workshop „Water for Aragon“ Darmstadt, 28.11.-30.11.2003, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Darmstadt University of.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Water Management in the Ebro Basin Workshop „Water for Aragon“ Darmstadt, 28.11.-30.11.2003, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Darmstadt University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Workshop „Water for Aragon“ Darmstadt, , Institute of Applied Geosciences, Darmstadt University of Technology Unidad de Economía Agraria Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón Diputación General de Aragón Economic Aspects of Water Management in the Ebro Basin J. Albiac

2 Water Management in the Ebro Basin 1. Water resources in Spain and in the Ebro basin 2. Economic evaluation of water management policies in the Ebro basin: Common Agricultural Policy Water Framework Directive National Hydrologic Plan National Irrigation Plan CONTENTS

3 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Basin planning units in Spain

4 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Ebro Basin Current st horizon nd horizon 2015 Increment Basin Hydrologic Plan Increment National Hydrologic Plan Irrigation Urban Industrial Júcar Basin Current st horizon nd horizon 2015 Increment Basin Hydrologic Plan Increment National Hydrologic Plan Irrigation includ. environm. Urban Industrial Segura Basin Current st horizon nd horizon 2015 Increment Basin Hydrologic Plan Increment National Hydrologic Plan Irrigation includ. environm. Urban Industrial Water use and forecasts in Ebro, Júcar and Segura basins (hm 3 )

5 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Demand and availability according to Basin Plans Ebro water transfer according to National Hydrologic Plan DemandAvailabilityWater transfer volume Ebro Júcar Segura1834 (1445 NHP) Sur Demand and availability in Basins and Ebro transfers (hm 3 )

6 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Ebro water flow at Tortosa (hm 3 /year)

7 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Watersheds in the Ebro basin

8 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Autonomous Communities (states) in the Ebro basin

9 Water Management in the Ebro Basin SPAINAragonCatalonia Community of Valencia (3%) Population 1900–2001

10 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Gross Domestic Product by region (1,000 €) Region Aragon14,302,18915,922,52616,591,16417,023,594 (3%) Catalonia82,752,57294,088,99897,700,14699,911,085 Valencia41,374,46848,994,44951,290,34853,012,062 Spain437,787,000506,846,000527,613,000542,166,000

11 Water Management in the Ebro Basin The water sector in Spain Spain is a country with a land surface of 506,000 km 2 and annual precipitations around hm 3 (684 mm), with large spatial and temporal rainfall variation. Total river flow is 110,100 hm 3, with a water storage capacity of 56,100 hm 3, and an average storage around 25,000 hm 3.

12 Water Management in the Ebro Basin AgricultureWater supply companies Other productive sectors Direct abstractions Utilization Irrigation Water losses in distribution Household consumption Other productive sectors (industries and services) Abstraction from agriculture is hm 3 and utilization hm 3 (rest are losses in distribution) Water supply companies abstractions are hm 3 supplying to households and to industries and service sector Industries and service sector direct abstractions are hm 3 Returns and discharges to environment are hm 3 from agriculture and hm 3 from urban and industrial users Water flows in the Economy

13 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Water flows between economy and environment 1999 (1000 m 3 )

14 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Irrigated area in Spain reaches 3.53 million ha, distributed between 2.16 million ha of arable crops and 0.84 millions of tree crops. Cereals fill 1,093,000 ha generating an income of 1,105 million € “Industrial” crops (sunflower, sugar beet) fill 559,000 ha with 612 million € of revenue Vegetables area is 379,000 ha generating a revenue of 4,885 million € Citric and non-citric fruit trees fill 540,000 ha and generate 2,400 million €. Importance of irrigation in Spain

15 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Cereals and “industrial” crops have an average revenue per cubic meter much lower than fruits and vegetables: 0.13 €/m 3 for cereals 2.00 €/m 3 for vegetables and 0.75 €/m 3 for fruit trees. Revenue of water in industrial sectors with sizable water demand is much higher: 84.3 €/m3 in the agro-food industry 83.1 €/m3 in the chemical industry 71.7 €/m3 in the paper industry. The average revenue of these industries is between 50 and 100 times large than the more profitable agricultural sectors such as vegetables and fruit trees.

16 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Water prices Prices in the urban sector are close to 0.70 €/m 3 Prices in agriculture are much lower, 0.02 €/m 3 The value of water environmental services could be high, although no valuation studies are available

17 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Irrigation in Aragón Irrigation acreage in the Ebro basin is around 850,000 ha, of which ha in Aragón

18 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Acreage and water use by crop group in Aragón (2002) Acreage (ha)Water use (hm 3 ) Cereals, alfalfa, sunflower298,4452,296 Vegetables8, Fruits61, Total369,0422,869 Water use (hm 3 )Losses (hm 3 ) Surface2, Sprinkle Drip Total2, Water use and losses by irrigation system in Aragón (2002)

19 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Cereals in Aragón

20 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Vegetables in Segura basin

21 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Common Agricultural Policy The changes of the Common Agricultural Policy by the Agenda 2000 and the modification of 2003, imply the gradual liberalization of agricultural markets, the reduction in support levels, and the strengthening of environmental requirements. Water Framework Directive The new Water Framework Directive promotes water prices close to full recovery costs and establishes pollution emissions restrictions and quality standards to achieve “good status” for all waters. National Hydrologic Plan The NHP main project is the Ebro water transfer to solve water scarcity and degradation in Southeast Spain. National Irrigation Plan The NIP objective is to modernize and improve irrigation facilities in Spanish agriculture. Economic evaluation of water management policies

22 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Effects of CAP changes in Aragon Revenue per hectare by county 2006 and 2012 horizons

23 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Net income per hectare by county 2006 and 2012 horizons

24 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Direct payments per hectare by county 2006 and 2012 horizons

25 Water Management in the Ebro Basin -The new WFD promotes water prices close to full recovery costs (including environmental costs) in order to induce water conservation and sustainable management of water resources (problem in southern Europe with prices to solve aquifer degradation). -The Directive establishes a combination of emissions restrictions and quality standards, with specific deadlines to achieve an appropriate quality for all waters and the management implementation of water based on watersheds and user participation. -Management of water irrigation demand in Spain is going to acquire a key role as a consequence of the Water Framework Directive. -Nitrate pollution in Spain affects specially the Mediterranean coast and the Ebro and Guadalquivir watersheds because of the excessive fertilizer application. Water Framework Directive

26 Water Management in the Ebro Basin -Several studies have examined the cost-efficiency of alternative measures to abate nitrogen leaching for some crops (Yadav 1997, Vickner et al. 1998, Martínez 2002), but ranking measures is contingent not only upon crop type but also upon soils. -We have analyzed the measures to reduce nitrate leaching under soil heterogeneity, ranking measures by their cost-efficiency. Nonpoint pollution from nitrates

27 Water Management in the Ebro Basin STUDY AREA 17 municipal districts in Huesca province ( Ha). Sotonera reservoir 187 Hm 3. Information collected –Agronomic data and crop management operations by soil type. –Weather information. –Water management practices by the irrigation district associations. –Surface irrigation is the prevailing system.

28 Water Management in the Ebro Basin WHC Water holding capacity (m 3 /ha). EC Salinity (Electric conductivity, dS/m). Soil Productivity Acreage (ha) WHC a Efficiency b EC c UnitSeries AG0ChacillaHigh 2,4781, AG1PlanterosLow 7, AG2 Corralete s Intermediate17,2632, AG3ValfondaLow (high salinity) 4,9442, AG4PlanterosLow (dryland) 6911, Soils

29 Water Management in the Ebro Basin The economic model developed includes a pollution function in order to assess water pollution from agricultural activities in the Flumen- Monegros area of the Ebro basin The crop production and nitrate pollution functions for corn have been estimated using the EPIC crop growth package, that incorporates local information on climate, soils, tillage and operations for crop activities.

30 Water Management in the Ebro Basin DYNAMIC MODEL The objective function is the maximization of social welfare Quasi-rent – pollution damage Nitrogen in soil balance equation subject to Leaching function Volatilization function Nitrogen uptake by plant function x t, n t water (mm/ha) and nitrogen (kg/ha) inputs, g t nitrogen in soil (kg/ha), z t corn crop area by soil type, p corn price (€/kg), p x water price (€/mm), p n nitrogen price (€/kg), s subsidies (€/ha), k fixed costs (€/ha), Where: MODEL

31 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Nitrogen (kg/ha) Water (mm/ha) Corn production function

32 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Abonado de nitrógeno (kg/ha) Agua (mm/ha) Función de contaminación

33 Water Management in the Ebro Basin ChacillaPlanterosCorraletesTotal District Welfare (1,000 €) Leaching (Tons) Welfare (1,000 €) Leaching (Tons) Welfare (1,000 €) Leaching (Tons) Welfare (1,000 €) Leaching (Tons) Base scenario 1, , , Water price 0.06 €/m 3 1, , , €/m 3 1, , Nitrogen price 0.9 €/kg 1, , , €/kg 1, , , Nitrogen standard 1, , , Emission tax 1, , , Results Control measures can be discriminated by soil type (and by crop) The first best instrument is an emission tax, but not feasible The second best instrument is a standard on fertilizer, applied in vulnerable soils Planteros and Corraletes Land use tax, linked to soil and crop (transaction costs?)

34 Water Management in the Ebro Basin National Hydrologic Plan: Ebro Water Transfer Water demand scenarios in Levante and NHP allocation (hm 3 ) Júcar basinSegura basinSouth basinTotal Levante Water Demand Reduction for Agricultural Use…...by banning aquifer overexploitation by increasing 0.12 €/m 3 water prices by increasing 0.18 €/m 3 water prices NHP Allocation All uses agricultural and environmental use urban and industrial use Effective Demand of Water for Agricultural Use…...at prices for transferred water (0.19 to 0.75 €/m 3 ) ,190

35 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Net income losses under alternative scenarios and subsidies (million €/year) Júcar basin Segura basin South basin Total Levante Net Income Losses to Farmers by banning aquifer overexploitation by increasing 0.12 €/m 3 water prices by increasing 0.18 €/m 3 water prices Subsidies Needed for the NHP… … to cover the gap between transferred water costs (0.19 to 0.75 €/m 3 ) and present low water prices

36 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Scope: 35 counties, ha of irrigated acreage 94% Valencia 80% Murcia 86% Almería Crops : Orange, mandarin, lemon, peach, apricot and almond trees, vineyards, olive trees, lettuce, tomato, artichoke, melon, pepper, onion, watermelon, bean, pumpkin, cucumber, broccoli, potato, wheat, barley, corn, rice, alfalfa, and sunflower. Tomato, pepper, melon, bean, and watermelon crops can be cultivated protected (green house) or not protected. Methodology: Linear programming Objective function: Net income 80 crop activities and 60 constraints 22 soil constraints 12 water constraints 12 labor constraints Study financed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and the Aragón Govern- ment Description of the model

37 Water Management in the Ebro Basin National Irrigation Plan Modernization and improvement of irrigation management Cost-benefit analysis of investments in modernization: - network channels -field irrigation systems (surface to sprinkle and drip) -changes in nonpoint pollution Cost-benefit analysis with and without public subsidies Possibility of expanding high profitable crops (vegetables)

38 Water Management in the Ebro Basin 28 villages ( ha). Corn and alfalfa (50%), barley and wheat (30%), vegetables (3%). Irrigation: surface (92%). Efficiency: 50% Study area: Cinco Villas county in the Bardenas irrigation district

39 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Cost-benefit analysis of investments with subsidies Crop Sprinkle Solid-set Pivot Drip Central Government Corn Barley Wheat Alfalfa Sunflower Tomato Pepper Autonomous (State) Government Corn Barley Wheat Alfalfa Sunflower15,8647- Tomato Pepper Net Present Value by crop (€/ha, including damage of nitrate pollution)

40 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Additional questions: -Effects of modernization on water flow in basin (reduction 1000 hm 3 ) -Environmental effects of expanding high profitable crops (vegetables) VariablesBaseVegetables surfaceVegetables drip Acreage (ha) Corn (ha) Barley (ha)819-- Wheat (ha) Alfalfa (ha) Sunflower (ha) Rice (ha)530-- Tomato (ha) Pepper (ha) Set-aside CAP (ha) Revenue (10 6 €)17,571,398,1 Net income (10 6 € )10,343,470,1 Water use (hm 3 ) Nitrogen use (MT) Labor use (man-years) Percolation (hm 3 )33545 Nitrogen leaching (MT)

41 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Work to be done Generate information relevant for the Water Framework Directive: Current situation of watersheds (2004) Management plan and measures (2008) YearIssueReference 2000Directive entered into forceArt Transposition in national legislation Identification of River Basin Districts and Authorities Art. 23 Art Characterization of river basin: pressures, impacts and economic analysisArt Establishment of monitoring network Start public consultation (at the latest) Art. 8 Art Present draft river basin management planArt Finalize river basin management plan including progam of measuresArt. 13 & Introduce pricing policiesArt Make operational programs of measuresArt Meet environmental objectivesArt First management cycle endsArt. 4 & Second management cycle ends, final deadline for meeting objectivesArt. 4 & 13

42 Water Management in the Ebro Basin Analytical tools → Agricultural and land use activities models, to assess water resource quantities and nonpoint pollution (nutrients, salts, pesticides) Example of new information technologies: evapotranspiration using remote sensing


Download ppt "Water Management in the Ebro Basin Workshop „Water for Aragon“ Darmstadt, 28.11.-30.11.2003, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Darmstadt University of."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google