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1 SBA: A Burden or New Opportunities for Teachers and Students? Ms Olivia Cheung CCC Kei To Secondary School April 22, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "1 SBA: A Burden or New Opportunities for Teachers and Students? Ms Olivia Cheung CCC Kei To Secondary School April 22, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 SBA: A Burden or New Opportunities for Teachers and Students? Ms Olivia Cheung CCC Kei To Secondary School April 22, 2006

2 2 assess their own students’ oral English language competencies over two years using the SBA criteria ‘based on topics and texts drawn from a program of independent and extensive reading/viewing’ provide students with appropriate, multiple and varied opportunities to demonstrate their full range of oral skills and enable them to make improvement in order to make good judgments about their oral language levels Demands of SBA The SBA component of 2007 HKCE English Language Examination requires teachers to :

3 3 Demands of SBA use information generated from the ongoing assessment to modify teaching and learning to raise students’ achievement put learning and teaching in the foreground help every student in every school to achieve their best help less proficient students to extend the range of their oral language whilst challenging more proficient ones to their full extent

4 4 Popular misconception of SBA Some teachers in lower banding schools think that SBA will: disadvantage their students, who haven’t developed a reading habit and lack confidence and skills in speaking Increase the workload of both teachers and students and making students more stressed and nervous.

5 5 My Interpretation of the SBA Initiative offer opportunities to promote effective learning support my role as a facilitator give teachers autonomy and flexibility in the design, implementation and specific timing of the assessment tasks to suit their own teaching goals and their students’ needs

6 6 My Interpretation of the SBA Initiative Teachers teaching very low proficiency students can, based on their judgment, select or develop an assessment task with low challenge and high support to be used with their students if that is meant to help their students to demonstrate their best Therefore, it is groundless to say that some students would be disadvantaged in SBA.

7 7 science students with very low English proficiency see English as a burden have limited exposure to English have no habit of reading lack interest and confidence in using English seldom got a pass in the internal English tests and exams passive learners (depend on teachers/ not make use of any opportunity outside to improve their English.) have almost no experience and skills in speaking have problem following English instructions feel a strong need to improve their English with the approach of the HKCEE Student Background

8 8 One of the teachers who had taught many of them in the previous year made a comment to me at the beginning of the school year that these students had far too many barriers to overcome that she didn’t think there was much we could do to help.

9 9 Building SBA into My Teaching Teaching under the SBA initiative perhaps needs to be redefined as providing the support and challenge that students need to demonstrate their best. To help students with very weak speaking skills like those in my class, teachers need to maximize the support to enable them to gain new understandings, knowledge and skills whilst pitching challenge at the right level to sustain their interest and effort in learning. However, how much and what kind of support and challenge is optimal for their learning poses a challenge for teachers.

10 10 Building SBA into My Teaching The problems: sometimes support may turn out to be hindrance instead of help, defeating or working against its own aim like the practice of allowing students to use notes challenge may be far too insufficient that it won’t help more proficient students to show the full range of their oral language skills

11 11 a text students had studied before e.g. last year’s class reader, A Christmas Carol (print fiction) a text relating to their life experience and interest e.g. Love Actually (non-print fiction) Building SBA into My Teaching Modeling an SBA assessment task to develop confidence and skills using:

12 12 Building SBA into My Teaching getting students to study the introduction to enhance general understanding and introduce the basic elements of the genre e.g. characters, plot and setting practising reading the introduction aloud to improve pronunciation showing the non-print version of the text to combine reading and viewing to enhance deeper understanding and language development enabling students to engage in studying interesting parts of the text, using guiding questions that draw on their imagination and experiences and call for higher cognitive skills, to help them reflect upon and respond to a text

13 13 getting students to write reflections and responses with teacher supplying vocabulary they lacked to help clarify thinking and develop language giving more emphasis on fluency than accuracy to help students learn to express themselves practicing reading aloud the parts students had studied and the vocabulary they had just learned from teacher to develop more accurate pronunciation getting students to study the pre-assessment task, which was built on what they had read and written in class, to help them learn the task requirements Building SBA into My Teaching

14 14 Building SBA into My Teaching teaching major interaction skills based on the task in a step-by-step fashion- starting with demonstration and introduction of useful expressions, followed by notes- taking, practice in groups and feedback showing a sample video clip of a students’ interaction doing a similar task on a different text to highlight effective communication strategies and revise useful expressions giving instructions on how they should structure their interaction grouping students randomly for pre-assessment to provide challenge to stretch their abilities

15 15 Building SBA into My Teaching videotaping students’ interactions at lunch time and after school in the presence of teacher to ensure every group has the opportunity to perform to the best of their abilities and conducting peer and self assessment right after every interaction using adapted evaluation forms from two publishers under the guidance of teacher to enable them to review their progress and identify areas for improvement reviewing recorded performances with every group, pinpointing strengths and advising on how to improve their skills to enhance confidence and further learning helping students to engage in self-reflection at different points of time to enhance capacity to take charge of learning

16 16 Preparing Students for the Actual School-based Assessment recommending texts and giving advice on how to choose a suitable one to work on providing a reading log to enable students to reflect on what they had read and to monitor progress circulating the non-print versions of students’ chosen texts that were available to give further support using the same assessment task with the new text to provide an opportunity for students to transfer the skills they had learnt and improve upon their work

17 17 Preparing Students for the Actual School-based Assessment giving instructions about note-taking and the use of notes and the time limit and answering queries concerning the conducting of the assessment to ensure that the oral language produced was authentic, not forced or memorized, and there was enough time for the production of it, and clarify misunderstandings grouping students according to the texts they were reading, the nature of the assessment task and teacher’s judgment about the degree of collaboration that the grouping might bring about helping students with vocabulary and pronunciation in their final preparation for the actual assessment

18 18 Impact of SBA on my students Over the past 5 months, students have completed the followings: 2 pre-assessments 1 actual assessment all on fictions (print and non-print) 3 self/ peer assessments using modified assessment criteria with Chinese translation

19 19 Impact of SBA on my students each group had a meeting with teacher watched the recording of their interaction and reviewed their performance received comments from teacher mainly on the domains of communication strategies and ideas and organization wrote their reflections on their experience of SBA and their own progress

20 20 Impact of SBA on my students Examples of two students: Colun, a less capable student Robin, a more capable student both of them had a very positive attitude towards the implementation of SBA and commented that SBA could help improve their oral English skills

21 21 Extracts from Colun’s self-reflections: “SBA interraction is the best way of improve English skills and it can increase companionships. In the interraction, student exchange theis [their] openions [opinions] together, ask any quiestion [question] and respond the quiestion that can train their reaction and how to speak English. Also, they can find a truth friend in the interraction because if you can’t respond the quiestion your truth friend must help you back out.”

22 22 Extracts from Colun’s self-reflections: “ I can learn anything from SBA interraction. I learn dozens of talking skills from SBA interraction. ……….. Beside that, I also learn how to speak English clarity.”

23 23 Extracts from Robin’s self-reflections: “ I enjoy doing SBA interactions. It is because I can have a discussion with the other student, includ some friends or someone I don’t know. It’s also let me have an opptunities to exchanges ideas, learn more english vocabulary and some grammers.”

24 24 Extracts from Robin’s self reflections: “ It can also let me learn more conversation skills. For instance, points must add the reason, otherwise, I can’t gain high marks. By this, It can also train my ability of analysed and judement you know I must choose a stance which is suitable for me. If not, It will be difficult for me to discuss and maintain until the end. I know more skill which can win somebody which is aggressive or who don’t say anything.”

25 25 Impact of SBA on my students Form these reflections we can see that students can benefit from the SBA initiative regardless of their levels of English proficiency. More importantly, both students have gained more awareness of their strengths and weaknesses and have more motivation to improve themselves.

26 26 Extracts from Colun’s self-reflections: “My English is really the worst. I think I without strengths in SBA interaction. I just have weaknesses in SBA interraction. For example, I less participate the discussion and speak English not clarity and accuracy. That’s a serious problem. I must correct. My English skills nearly zero, I will improve that immediately.”

27 27 Extracts from Colun’s self-reflections: “Occasionally, another will pick on me, but that just be encourage me to speak. But I always can’t respond other’s quiestion [question] that make me embarrassed. I think that is my problem. That’s I haven’t any knowledge.”

28 28 Extracts from Robin’s self-reflections: “In the interaction the weakness I think I have is I speak english sounds slow, I’m training myself now, I’ll give the air or something a speech. But, I thing I haven’t got any strengths.”

29 29 Extracts from Robin’s self-reflections: “But the SBA interaction, the most important things that I should improve everytime is I must say something which is meaningful, if I say something meaningless, I may be fail in the discussion.”

30 30 Impact of SBA on my students SBA Pre - Assessment 1 Task: Choosing a gift for the main character, Scrooge, a miserly man, who values money over people, in the story A Christmas Carol (adapted from a sample assessment task provided by the HKEAA) Text type: Print Fiction Time for interaction: No limit

31 31 Video of Colun Pre-Assessment 1

32 32 Comments for Colun in Pre-Assessment 1 Strengths appropriately strong voice projection pronounced common words well enough to be understood most of the time showed command of basic intonation appropriate body language to show attention

33 33 Comments for Colun in Pre-Assessment 1 Strengths could use a range of appropriate turn-taking strategies (e.g. redirecting a conversation, making suggestions, responding to others and asking for clarification) used simple vocabulary and language patterns appropriately and confidently could self-correct simple errors was able to express simple, relevant points with occasional expansion of ideas

34 34 Comments for Colun in Pre-Assessment 1 Areas for improvement: Need to: speak more fluently widen his range of vocabulary and language pattern learn to pronounce more clearly and accurately learn to respond to others more effectively and be able to justify his points learn to sustain and extend a conversational exchange express ideas more clearly and fluently

35 35 Impact of SBA on my students SBA Pre - Assessment 2 Task: Discuss your favourite character in the film Love Actually and decide who will have the most long lasting relationship with his/ her partner Text type: Non-print fiction Time for interaction: No limit

36 36 Video of Colun Pre-Assessment 2

37 37 Comments for Colun in Pre - Assessment 2 Progress shown: more relaxed and confident fully engaged in interaction able to use appropriate body language to show interest as well as attention could speak more fluently more able to sustain and extend conversational exchanges (e.g. drawing others into extending the interaction by questioning and redirecting a conversation)

38 38 Video of Robin Pre-Assessment 1

39 39 Comments for Robin in Pre - Assessment 1 Strengths: appropriate voice projection pronounced most sounds clearly used body language appropriately to show attention used a good range of turn-taking strategies and expressions to conduct the interaction

40 40 Comments for Robin in Pre - Assessment 1 Strengths: showed confidence and appropriacy inviting and responding to others vocabulary mostly appropriate and varied attempted a range of language patterns responded appropriately to others’ ideas demonstrated his ability to sustain and extend some conversational exchanges

41 41 Comments for Robin in Pre - Assessment 1 Areas for improvement: Need to: be more relaxed have more accurate pronunciation speak a bit more fluently provide sufficient elaborations to follow up on ideas

42 42 Video of Robin Pre-Assessment 2

43 43 Comments for Robin in Pre - Assessment 2 Progress shown: had more accurate pronunciation used language creatively and more accurately consistently responded effectively to others expressed a wide range of relevant and interesting ideas showed his ability to elaborate on others’ ideas good use of body language to display and encourage interest

44 44 Colun’s comments in his last self-assessment: 感覺良好,最 enjoy 可以講好多 D 野。最唔 enjoy 係講 D 左好多廢話,同發音唔係咁清。 [I feel good. The thing that I enjoyed most is that I talked much. The thing that I didn’t enjoy most is that I spoke too much rubbish and my pronunciation was not very clear.] 整體來說,我們能討論到所有題目,所以我覺得大家 都有進步;最困難是不能將自己的意見用英文表達出 來。 [All in all, we were able to discuss all the topics, so I think that all of us have shown improvement. The most difficult part is that I couldn’t express my views in English.]

45 45 Robin’s comments in his last self-assessment: After this discussion, it’s can improve my English and I can learn more vocabulary and have more confident to do next SBA interaction. I’ll watch the film which is in SBA interaction because it can let me know more about this film. I enjoy discuss with my group members seriously and talking with them at last because at last we all have warm up. This interaction is lower than my level, maybe I think it is not difficult so I haven’t make some note.

46 46 Comments from Colun’s members Member 1 我認為我始終不夠主動,不過在這次討論中我 首次用到我從電視中學到的生字,感覺也不錯。 另外我認為在回應別人方面是可以改善的。 [I think I was not being proactive enough, but it was my first time being able to use the vocabulary items I learned from the television in the discussion. I feel quite good about that. Also, I think I can improve on the aspect of responding to others.]

47 47 Comments from Colun’s members Member 2 我認為這次我巳經有一點點的進步了,懂得如 何去主動。不過我還能學用更多的生字。最困 難是掌握不到什麼我應該說。最享受看戲時。 [I think I have already got some improvement and know how to be more proactive, but I think I can still learn more vocabulary items. The most difficult part was not being sure of what I needed to say [during the discussion]. What I enjoyed most was the time when I was watching the movie.]

48 48 Comments from Robin’s members Member 1 成功,大家也肯參加,最影響自己是大家也斷 斷續續,不能一氣呵成。我覺得這一個活動可 以使我的英文水平提高,如可以使我學到訐多 生字。可以使我所運作的生字更多,經過今次 的活動,我巳經不太怕鐃頭了。最享受的今次 講左 38 分鐘比上次多 8 分鐘,最難是太過困難去 取發言權,所以可以多加練習發言,加強發言 的 skill ,和我要多加反對聲音,因為我成日對 別人的意見作正面,所以我要加多 D 反面的意 見去平衡。今次的活動我的表現超了我的水平, 可能是因為各團員的合作,使我加強了水平。

49 49 Comments from Robin’s members Member 1 [Success, because all of us participated, but what affected me most was that our discussion was a bit choppy; it was not very smooth. I feel that this activity can increase my English level, e.g. I can learn and use many new vocabulary items. After this activity, I am no longer afraid of the camera. What I enjoyed most was that we talked for about 38 minutes which is 8 minutes longer than last time. The most difficult part was trying to initiate a conversation, so I need to practice my skills in initiating a conversation. I also need to share my disagreement. I feel that I have been agreeing on others’ views, I need to voice my opinions to strike a balance. I think my performance this time is better than my own level, perhaps it is because the group members all worked together and in turn, it enhanced my level of speaking.]

50 50 Comments from Robin’s members Member 2 我覺此討論很好,很完善,此討論令我更 有信心去對下一次討論,但是下一次討論 之前,我一定要學習多一點生字,否則我 會嚴重缺乏生字使用,而在這此討論最重 要的人物是 Robin ,他幫助了很多人。我 最享受討論中有一點笑聲,這可令我有信 心在討論中能輕鬆。對我來說做 ( 最 ) 困難 的便是因缺乏生字而令到我不能表達我的 意思,我覺得我今次討論是超了水平,因 為有 Robin 等人,幫助了我很多。

51 51 Comments from Robin’s members Member 2 [I feel that we had a good discussion and it helped me to have more confidence to face the next discussion. However, I must learn more vocabulary items before the next discussion; otherwise, I might seriously run out of vocabulary. Robin played a very important role during this discussion. He helped a lot of people. What I enjoyed most was the little laughs we had during the discussion so I could feel more relaxed in the discussion. The most difficult part to me was the lack of vocabulary to express myself properly. Nevertheless, I think I have performed better than usual because Robin helped me a lot.]

52 52 Comments from Robin’s members Member 3 It successful! We can talk a long time. Next round I will see the film more times, you know the character’s personality is too difficult to find it. 我 自己的參與率不夠高 [I was not very involved in the discussion] , then next time I will talk more and not enough vocabulary. 我 feel it in my fingers, I feel it in my toes. I think we need to know this song, this song can give you may evidence and example. In the film more details are very important. 我覺得我 地交流得幾好唔錯,幾多例子 [I think we had good interaction and we had quite a few examples] 。今次 未達到自己應有的水,因為套戲我未體熟。 [I think I have not reached the level I should be at this time because I was not very familiar with the movie.]

53 53 Impact of SBA on me as a teacher SBA: has empowered me as a teacher putting me back in control of my own teaching and my students’ learning has endorsed what I have been trying to do over the years promoting extensive reading and creating more opportunities for my students to learn to use English to express themselves has provided me with better opportunities to obtain more useful information about how and what my students know, understand and can do so as to enable me to make better judgments about how their learning can be improved

54 54 Conclusion SBA can have a strong impact on learning, helping students to gain news skills, new knowledge and new understandings, motivating them to make further move in the process of achieving the learning goals and in the end enabling them to be independent learners guiding their own learning. As a teacher what I would like SBA to do for me is to develop in my students the capacity to evaluate their own development in learning and the commitment to the learning goals.

55 55 Thank You. Questions?


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