醫圖年會 3 前言 2011 年美國高等教育圖書館的營運標準 ACRL’s Standards for Libraries in Higher Education 高等教育發展的五大趨勢
5 Principles of ACRL ’ s Standards for Libraries in Higher Education 1.Institutional Effectiveness: 2.Professional Values: 3.Educational Role: 4.Discovery: 5.Collections: 6.Space 7.Management / Administration 8.Personnel 9.External relations
醫圖年會 6 Five Global Trends all Knowledge Professionals Should Understand 1.Globalization 2.Distressed Markets 3.Disintermediation 4.Disruptive Technologies or Disruptive Innovation 5.Competition Librarians-Caputo pdf
醫圖年會 7 MOOCs 的緣起 Following on from the development of Open Education Resources and the Open Education movement, the term Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) was first introduced in 2008 by Dave Cormier to describe George Siemens and Stephen Downes “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge” course.
醫圖年會 12 MOOCs 課程的特性 Katie High, vice president for academic affairs, The University of Tennessee “We wanted to know if there were facets that we weren’t taking advantage of,” High said. “Coursera is able to offer instruction in 12-minute bites. We want to know if instruction in smaller bites is more effective than the traditional 50- minute lecture.” ?nclick_check=1, ?nclick_check=1
醫圖年會 13 MOOCs 的類型：據教學觀點 cMOOC Connectivist -- Downes Constructivist – 其他人 2008 Downes and George Siemens 稱 MOOC 為 “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge” Were grounded in the idea that learners play an important role in creating the learning. xMOOC instructivist— 模擬傳統的教學方式，以教授為核心 的教學法
醫圖年會 14 MOOCs 的類型： MOOC mOOC micro Open Online Course (mOOC) on Open Content Licensing for Educators (OCL4Ed) network-organises-new-mooc-open-content-licensing- educators#.UdGE1opU_Fc.twitter HOOC high school, open on-line courses --Italy
醫圖年會 16 Will MOOCs Destroy Academia? academia/fulltexte education. It is clear, therefore, that the enormous buzz about MOOCs is not due to the technology's intrinsic educational value, but due to the seductive possibilities of lower costs. The oft-repeated phrase is "technology disruption." This is the context for the dismissal (and later reinstatement) last summer of Theresa A. Sullivan, University of Virginia's president, because she was not moving fast enough with online.
醫圖年會 17 MOOCs 的魅力 (1/3) of-disruptive-education/fulltext of-disruptive-education/fulltext " Introduction to Artificial Intelligence" Peter Norvig (left) Google's director of research Sebastian Thrun a Google vice president, 2011 fall. 160,000 students signed up 23,000 completed the course.
醫圖年會 25 Khadijah Niazi of Lahore, Pakistan, is an inspirational example of how online education is revolutionizing learning. She was only 10 years old when she first took the Artificial Intelligence online course on Udacity. She managed to finish the course and, the following year, Khadijah completed Udacity’s Physics course with highest distinction, being the youngest ever girl to complete it.
醫圖年會 26 Khadijah is 12-years old, and Udacity founder Sebastian Thrun, Bill Gates of Microsoft, Larry Summers of Harvard, Thomas L. Friedman of The New York Times, and other panelists at the Victor Pinchuk Foundation’s 6th Philanthropic Roundtable, which took place at Davos in conjunction with the World Economic Forum.other panelists at the Victor Pinchuk Foundation’s 6th Philanthropic Roundtable The discussion aims to show how MOOCs are finding their way to young prodigies around the world and how they are potentially changing the game in educational access. “I think that MOOCs may allow peace in the world,” she says at one point during the video.
醫圖年會 31 MOOCs 主要的學習者 (1/3) 1.Internal students on course – cost savings on volume courses 2.Internal students not on course – expanding student experience 3.Potential students national –major source of income whos-using-moocs-10-different.html
醫圖年會 32 MOOCs 主要的學習者 (2/3) 4. Potential students international – major source of income 5. Potential students High school – reputation and preparation 6. Parents – significant in student choice 7. Alumni – potential income and influencers using-moocs-10-different.html
醫圖年會 33 MOOCs 主要的學習者 (3/3) 8. Lifelong learners – late and lifelong adult learners 9. Professionals – related to professions and work 10. Government – part of access strategy cs-whos-using-moocs-10-different.html
醫圖年會 37 Flipped Classroom ： MOOCs 在正規教育的應用 San Jose State University incorporates an MIT subject offered by edX into an engineering course. Instead of San Jose State's students attending lectures on campus, they watch online lectures and complete short tests at home. On campus they do collaborative study with their teachers and fellow students. It is an example of the "flipped classroom". signs-up--moocs-are-here-to-sway r7dl.html
醫圖年會 38 建議授予學分的 MOOCs American Council on Education Recommends 5 MOOCs for Credit Duke University. Introduction to Genetics and Evolution Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach University of California at Irvine. Pre-Calculus Algebra University of Pennsylvania Calculus: Single-Variable
醫圖年會 39 規劃授予學分 / 學位的 MOOCs Washington University Emory University Udacity and Georgia Tech Colorado State University--Global Campus MOOC2Degree
醫圖年會 56 Why should libraries care about MOOCS? 1.Disruptive to teaching & library models 2.Externally driven 3.Rapid uptake 4.Seem contradictory to what we know 5.Fast changing 6.Happening in an environment of rising costs and questions about educational quality 7.potential revenue stream (many of now charging for credit)
醫圖年會 58 Academic publishers in MOOCs pilot Cengage Learning, Macmillan Higher Education, Oxford University Press, Sage and Wiley are experimenting with offering Coursera students versions of their e- textbooks, delivered via a DRM-protected e-reader provided by student learning platform Chegg.
醫圖年會 59 0Tar8&feature=youtu.be
醫圖年會 60 Conclusion Andrew M. Heller Professor at The Wharton Take Away #1 Rapid, decentralized production Need for somebody to understand the process and the technology Take Away #2: MOOCs are not a broadcasting machine but will generate huge amount of new content Great for libraries / not just true in business courses (think poetry) Take Away #3 Enormous opportunity for libraries to create / package bundles of learning experiences Faculty are domain experts, somebody needs to understand the system MOOCs and Libraries: Production & Pedagogy, 0:16:50
醫圖年會 67 What is our institutional capacity to deliver a MOOC ？ Technical Instructional Library Resource discovery Copyright clearance “What campus leaders need to know about MOOCs”, EDUCAUSE, need-know-about-moocs
醫圖年會 68 Duke Librarians have offered:(1/2) opportunities.pptx 1.Locating sources of open educational resources (OERs) and other appropriate resources to include in Coursera course materials, 2.Creating tutorials (screencasts or webpages/LibGuides with screenshots) to help Coursera students locate OERs,
醫圖年會 69 Duke Librarians have offered:(2/2) opportunities.pptx 3.Creating LibGuide(s) with links to freely available websites/tools (e.g., Zotero, Mendeley, Citing Sources), OERs and tutorials, 4.Showing how to link LibGuides to the Coursera class, 5.Providing step-by-step instructions for posting materials to Duke’s Institutional Repository so these resources may be included in your Coursera course materials.
醫圖年會 70 =
醫圖年會 71 Research Libraries Involved in Supporting MOOCs -- ARL Serving faculty by supporting their need for material to use in their lectures and to assign for students’ independent reading. To work with faculty and campus counsel to navigate the copyright issues raised by teaching in the open, online environment.
醫圖年會 72 Legal Issues Raised for Research Libraries – ARL 1.Use of copyrighted works in instruction. 2.Assignment of copyrighted works for outside reading. 3.Ownership of course content. 4.Applicability of the notice-and-takedown provisions of Digital Millennium Copyright Act. 5.Accessibility issues. MOOC courses for learners with disabilities.
醫圖年會 74 The library's role in the university's educational mission – Judith C. Russell at Elsevier ’ s Digital Libraries Symposium 2013 ALA midterm meeting The University of Florida has already seen substantial enrollment in its first five MOOCs, and is developing additional courses. The libraries are partnering with faculty to assist them with embedded or linked information resources in their MOOC course material. This is such a significant paradigm shift that the faculty have not yet fully understood how their rights and responsibilities differ when they offer these materials to students who are not enrolled at our universities and therefore may not be eligible to access our licensed content.
醫圖年會 75 Brown University Library 1.Negotiate with publishers over course materials 2.Help make fair-use decisions 3.Track down public-domain images 4.Provide digital production services 5.Set up teaching spaces and equipment
醫圖年會 76 Roles for libraries: (1/4) 1.Resources - Licensing, open access, copyright/fair use, creative commons: The most important and critical role and one we already know! 2.Course Building - production, instructional design, integrating resources: a role some of us play in libraries and one that we might be able to assist with on our campuses.
醫圖年會 77 Roles for libraries: (2/4) 3.Preservation and/or Archiving, and Institutional Repositories: another critical role, who better to help preserve the materials for MOOCs on the campus. 4.Materials Creations/Instructional Technologies: librarians as creators of information and assistance with tech tools for online course/MOOCs
醫圖年會 78 Roles for libraries ： (3/4) 5.Tech Savvy Expertise: Many of the panelists mentioned that libraries tend to be more tech savvy than they are - nice comment to hear! 6.Librarians create a MOOC & and take a MOOC or two: why not create on on information literacy or critical thinking... but also we should take a MOOC to understand how it works.
醫圖年會 79 Roles for libraries ： (4/4) 7. Interdisciplinary, broad vision, key collaborators: the library is an establish entity on a campus in this role, important for a campus wide initiate like MOOCs.
醫圖年會 80 OPEN EDUCATION RESOURCES LIBRARIAN Fort Hays State University Responsibilities associated with the position require knowledge of issues in open education, open textbooks, open access, copyright, and intellectual property. The Open Education Librarian provides information literacy instruction, research assistance, outreach, and service to the University community.
醫圖年會 85 參考資料 “Reconfigured and Unbundled” Slides Address Factors Affecting Research Universities and Libraries -29.html Jim Michalko
醫圖年會 86 參考資料 The "MOOCs and Libraries: Massive Opportunity or Overwhelming Challenge?“, OCLC hosted, took place March, 2013, at the University of Pennsylvania 18.html
醫圖年會 87 參考資料 CALTER, Mariellen (2013) MOOCs and the library: engaging with evolving pedagogy. Paper presented at: IFLA World Library and Information Congress, August 2013, Singapore.
醫圖年會 88 參考資料 SchwartzSchwartz, Meredith. “Massive Open Opportunity: Supporting MOOCs in Public and Academic Libraries” Library Journal, May 10, 2013Meredith services/massive-open-opportunity-supporting- moocs/
醫圖年會 89 參考資料 CHEN, Joyce Chao-chen (2013) Opportunities and challenges of MOOCs: perspectives from Asia. Paper presented at: IFLA World Library and Information Congress, August 2013, Singapore.