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Prepared by Dr. Sally Soileau Nutrition Extension Agent LSU AgCenter Food Safety.

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2 Prepared by Dr. Sally Soileau Nutrition Extension Agent LSU AgCenter Food Safety

3 How Times Have Changed A lot has changed – including the way food is produced, distributed. Formerly, food produced close to home. Many shopped daily, prepared and ate food at home. In past, restaurant dining reserved for special occasions.

4 How Times Have Changed Marketplace reflects global food choices. Nearly 50% of food dollars are from foods that others prepare, like "carry out or restaurant meals. New, dangerous bacteria and viruses found in food – unknown years ago. Science identified illnesses caused by bacteria and viruses in food.

5 Recognizing Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness, while dangerous, is often easy to prevent. Following basic rules of food safety, you can prevent foodborne illness for self and others. Difficult for people to recognize when harmful bacteria from food made them ill. Difficult to tell if food is unsafe, because you cant see, smell, or taste the bacteria it may contain.

6 Recognizing Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness is sometimes confused with other illnesses, such as a stomach illness or flu symptoms. Signs & symptoms of foodborne illness: - upset stomach - diarrhea - fever -vomiting -abdominal cramps -dehydration -more severe illness, even death If you are unsure of your condition, the best thing is to check with your doctor.

7 Food Safety Facts Annually, 76 million people in the United States become ill from harmful bacteria in food; and about 5,000 die. There are more than 5 times the number of dangerous bacteria in food than we were aware of in One may become sick anytime from 20 minutes to 6 weeks after eating food with harmful bacteria.

8 Some People Face Special Risks Some people are more likely to get sick from harmful bacteria in food. Once sick, these individuals face risk of serious health problems, even death. Those at greatest risk include: -infants & young children. -pregnant women. -older adults. -others with weakened immune systems.

9 Why are Older Adults More Susceptible to Foodborne Illness? Immune systems weaken with age. Stomach acid decreases, which plays important role in reducing number of bacteria in intestinal tract. Underlying illnesses (such as diabetes, cancer treatments, and kidney disease) may increase risk of foodborne illness.

10 Raw fin fish and shellfish, including oysters, clams, mussels and scallops. Hot dogs and luncheon meats, unless reheated until steaming hot. Raw or unpasteurized milk or soft cheeses, such as feta, Brie, Camembert, blue-veined and Mexican- style cheese (unless labeled "made with pasteurized milk). Refrigerated pates or meat spreads (canned or shelf- stable pates and meat spreads may be eaten) Refrigerated smoked seafood (unless contained in a cooked dish, such as a casserole). People who face special risks should not eat:

11 Raw or lightly cooked egg or egg products containing raw eggs such as salad dressings, cookie or cake batter, sauces, and beverages such as egg nog. Raw meat or poultry. Raw sprouts (alfalfa, clover and radish). Unpasteurized or untreated fruit or vegetable juice (these juices will carry a warning label). People who face special risks should not eat:

12 Be Food Safe Clean: Wash Hands and Surfaces Often Always wash hands with warm, soapy water: before handling food after handling food after using the bathroom after changing a diaper after tending to a sick person after blowing nose, coughing or sneezing after handling pets Wash hands with soap and warm water for 20 seconds.

13 Bacteria can spread throughout kitchen and get on hands, cutting boards, knives and countertops; frequent cleaning can keep from this from happening. Be Food Safe Clean Cutting Boards Run cutting boards and utensils through dishwasher or wash in hot soapy water after each use. Keep countertops clean by washing with hot, soapy water after preparing food.

14 Be Food Safe, Separate Use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry and seafood and another for salads and ready-to-eat food. Keep raw meat, poultry and seafood and their juices apart from other food items in grocery cart. Store raw meat, poultry and seafood in container or on plate, so juices cant drip on other foods.

15 Be Food Safe, Cook Looking at color and texture of food is not enoughyou have to use a food thermometer to be sure According to USDA research, 1 out of every 4 hamburgers turns brown before it reaches safe internal temperature

16 Thermy's Food Safety Rules Always use food thermometer when cooking. Place thermometer in thickest part of foods, away from bones and fat. Cook food to safe internal temperature. Temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit (°F). Check temperature in several places to ensure even cooking. Wash food thermometer with hot, soapy water after using it.


18 Kitchen Thermometers Food thermometer should be used to ensure cooked food is held at safe temperatures until served. Many types of food thermometers, important to follow instructions for your food thermometer. Cold foods should be held at 40° F or below. Hot food should be kept hot at 140° F or above.

19 Thermometer Tips Dial oven-safe: Thermometer inserted into food at beginning of cooking time and remains in food throughout cooking. Check thermometer as food cooks, to know exactly when thick cuts of meat, such as roasts or turkeys, are cooked to safe temperature.

20 Thermometer Tips Dial instant-read: Thermometer not designed to stay in food during cooking; when you think food is cooked to safe temperature, check with instant-read thermometer. Insert instant-read thermometer into thickest part to point marked on the probe – usually to depth of 2 inches. 15 to 20 seconds required for temperature display.

21 Thermometer Tips Digital instant-read: Thermometer does not stay in food during cooking – check temperature when you think food is cooked; advantage – heat-sensing device is in the tip of the probe. Place tip of probe in center of thickest part of food--at least 1/2 inch deep 10 seconds required for temperature to be displayed

22 Be Food Safe, Cook Stir, rotate the dish and cover food when microwaving to prevent cold spots where bacteria can survive. Bring sauces, soups and gravies to rolling boil when reheating.

23 Be Food Safe, Cool At room temperature, bacteria in food can double in 20 minutes. Refrigerate foods quickly; cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying. Won't harm refrigerator to place warm food inside; will keep food – and you – safe. Set home refrigerator to 40°F or below. Set freezer unit to 0°F or below. Use an appliance thermometer to check temperatures.

24 Chill: Did You Know? Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared food and leftovers within 2 hours. Divide large amounts of leftovers into shallow containers for quick cooling in refrigerator. Chill leftovers and takeout foods within 2 hours, and divide food into shallow containers for rapid cooling.

25 Be Food Safe, Thaw Never thaw foods at room temperature; safely thaw food in refrigerator. Thaw food outside refrigerator by immersing in cold water; change water every half hour to keep water cold; cook immediately after thawing. Thaw food in the microwave, then, be sure to continue cooking right away. Marinate foods in the refrigerator. Don't pack refrigerator too full; cold air must circulate to keep food safe. Thaw meat, poultry and seafood in the fridge, not on counter, and don't overstuff fridge.

26 Eating Out, Bringing In Sometimes it is easier and more enjoyable to let someone else do the cooking; there are many eating options. All of these options, however, do have food safety implications.

27 Complete Meals-to-Go and Home-delivered Meals Meals may be purchased from grocery stores, deli stores or restaurants. Ordering home-delivered meals from restaurants or restaurant-delivery services is also an option. For those who qualify, Meals on Wheels provide a ready-prepared meal each day. Hot or cold ready-prepared meals are perishable and can cause illness when mishandled. Proper handling is essential to ensure the food is safe.

28 Eating Out Goal is to have both a safe and enjoyable dining experience when dining out – (restaurant, senior center or fast-food diner). State and local health departments set the guidelines that all food service establishments are required to follow.

29 The Doggie Bag If you will not be arriving home within 2 hours of being served (1 hour if temperatures are above 90° F), it is safer to leave leftovers at restaurant. Remember, the inside of a car can get warm; bacteria grow rapidly. It is safer to go directly home after eating and put leftovers in refrigerator. Some senior centers do not allow food to be taken away from site because it is easy for bacteria to multiply to dangerous levels when food is left unrefrigerated too long.

30 Be Food Safe: Summary Putting the 2-hour Rule Into Action HOT FOODS: When you purchase hot cooked food, keep it hot. Eat food within 2 hours to prevent harmful bacteria from multiplying. If not eating within 2 hours – and want to keep food hot – keep food in oven set at temperature to keep food at or above 140° F. COLD FOODS should be eaten within 2 hours or refrigerated or frozen for eating at another time.

31 Web site Resources Check out the senior food safety Web resource jointly sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration and AARP at Federal food safety – including the Food and Drug Administration ( the Food Safety and Inspection Service ( and joint-Federal information at ( Partnership for Food Safety Education at

32 Be Food Safe If you have questions, please call the following toll-free hotlines: The Food and Drug Administration Hotline can answer questions about safe handling of seafood, fruits and vegetables, as well as rules that govern food safety in restaurants and grocery stores: SAFEFOOD. The USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline can answer questions about safe handling of meat and poultry as well as many other consumer food issues: MPHotline ( ).

33 Resources Be Food Safe, USDA and the Partnership for Food Safety Education To Your Health-Food Safety for Seniors, 2006; FDA; USDA, FSIS Made available by: Dr. Sally Soileau, Nutrition Extension Agent, LSU AgCenter

34 Prepared by Dr. Sally Soileau Nutrition Extension Agent LSU AgCenter Food Safety


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