Presentation on theme: "BAHAN KAJIAN MK. Kajian Lingkungan dan Pembangunan SUSTAINABLE CITY Diabstraksikan / disajikan oleh: Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS PPSUB Agustus 2011."— Presentation transcript:
BAHAN KAJIAN MK. Kajian Lingkungan dan Pembangunan SUSTAINABLE CITY Diabstraksikan / disajikan oleh: Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS PPSUB Agustus 2011
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN A sustainable city, or eco-city is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO 2, methane, and water pollution. Richard Register first coined the term "ecocity" in his 1987 book, Ecocity Berkeley: building cities for a healthy future.
Emisi kendaraan bermotor di jalan-jalan perkotaan menjadi salah satu sumber emisi yang dapat mencemari udara kota Malang menuju Kota Ramah Lingkungan Foto smno 2011
Malang menuju Kota Ramah Lingkungan Jalur hijau di sepanjang jalan-jalan di kota Malang mempunyai andil sangat besar dalam menentukan indeks kenyamanan lingkungan kota. Penataan lebih lanjut dapat diarahkan pada perawatan tajuk pohon dan penanaman jenis- jenis yang lebih ramah lingkungan Foto smno 2011
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN A sustainable city can feed itself with minimal reliance on the surrounding countryside, and power itself with renewable sources of energy. The crux of this is to create the smallest possible ecological footprint, and to produce the lowest quantity of pollution possible, to efficiently use land; compost used materials, recycle it or convert waste-to- energy, and thus the city's overall contribution to climate change will be minimal, if such practices are adhered to.
Occupation level coefficient Concept of occupation level coefficient is ratio of authorized area for construction with respect to total denotative parts area. On this basis, above index achieves by dividing authorized occupation area to total denotative parts area and expresses as a percentage. For example, when the index level of occupation coefficient for a 400 m2 piece of land is 60%, it means that 60% of this land can be constructed. Occupation level coefficient has direct effect on construction pattern of infrastructure of cities. Effects of occupation level coefficient on given infrastructure decrease severely when construction of more than one floor buildings spreads. Today the most common occupation level coefficient in urban designs is 60%; however this coefficient can be decreases to 50% or 40% in some urban areas. It should be noted that occupation level coefficient is one of most ineffective indexes for population density control and only can effects the control of population density when combine with other indicators such as number of building’s floors. This indicator has particular importance in urban design.
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN The ecological cities are achieved through various means, such as: Different agricultural systems such as agricultural plots within the city (suburbs or centre). This reduces the distance food has to travel from field to fork. Practical work out of this may be done by either small scale/private farming plots or through larger scale agriculture (e.g. farmscrapers).suburbscentrefield to fork Renewable energy sources, such as wind turbines, solar panels, or bio-gas created from sewage. Cities provide economies of scale that make such energy sources viable.wind turbinesbio-gassewage
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNG The ecological cities are achieved through various means, such as: Various methods to reduce the need for air conditioning (a massive energy demand), such as planting trees and lightening surface colors, natural ventilation systems, an increase in water features, and green spaces equaling at least 20% of the city's surface.air conditioningnatural ventilation systems These measures counter the "heat island effect" caused by an abundance of tarmac and asphalt, which can make urban areas several degrees warmer than surrounding rural areas—as much as six degrees Celsius during the evening.heat island effect
Lahan sawah di sekitar Kota Malang Ruang terbuka hijau berupa lahan sawah dengan pepohonan di sekitarnya dapat menyumbangkan kenyamanan lingkungan bagi atmosfir Kota Malang. Lahan-lahan seperti ini terancam oleh pertumbuhan kota yang tidak terkendali Foto smno 2011
KONVERSI SAWAH MENJADI PUSAT BISNIS Lahan sawah di pinggiran Kota Malang dikonversi menjadi Pusat Pasar dengan fasilitas pendukungnya. ADA jasa-jasa lingkungan yang hilang akibat konversi lahan seperti ini Foto smno 2011
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNG The ecological cities are achieved through various means, such as: Improved public transport and an increase in pedestrianization to reduce car emissions. This requires a radically different approach to city planning, with integrated business, industrial, and residential zones. Roads may be designed to make driving difficult. Optimal building density to make public transport viable but avoid the creation of urban heat islands.
Ramainya alon-alon Kota Malang Rimbunnya pepohonan di alon-alon Kota Malang apa mampu menyerap emisi kendaraan bermotor yang semakin “crowded” Foto smno 2011
BUILDING DENSITY = Surface of infrastructure coefficient Sumber: http://region6.tehran.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=101&language=en-US Surface of infrastructure coefficient or building density is one of most common methods of population density control in the world and especially on cities. This index is achieved by dividing surface of constructed building’s infrastructure to total denotative land surface. Building density is usually without unit and represents as a percentage. In fact, this index indicates authorized percentage of construction of infrastructure toward total denotative land area.
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNG The ecological cities are achieved through various means, such as: Solutions to decrease urban sprawl, by seeking new ways of allowing people to live closer to the workspace Since the workplace tends to be in the city, downtown, or urban center, they are seeking a way to increase density by changing the antiquated attitudes many suburbanites have towards inner-city areas. One of the new ways to achieve this is by solutions worked out by the Smart Growth Movement.
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNG The ecological cities are achieved through various means, such as: Green roofs Zero-emission transport Zero-energy building Sustainable urban drainage systems or SUDS Energy conservation systems/devices Xeriscaping - garden and landscape design for water conservation
Taman halaman gedung dengan sistem multistrata Taman multistrata ternyata mempunyai kemampuan indeks kenyamanan lingkungan yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan monostrata Nilai amenitas dari biodiversitas tanaman pertamanan Foto smno 2008
Delman: Zero emission transport Sumber: http://ndobos.blogdrive.com/comments?id=252
Sustainable City Award This award focuses on a holistic approach on Sustainability in cities and integrates different types of resources or capital's for a better future in cities around the world.
Viikki EcoCity, Germany Experimental ecological building Two separate competitions were arranged to find new, more ecological housing solutions for the southern part of Latokartano. A set of specific ecological criteria was created to encourage sustainable development in the building process, and make it possible to measure the level of respect for the ecosystem evinced by the various building projects. The projects were judged with regard to pollution, use of natural resources, how healthy the houses were to live in, diversity of nature and food production. Passive and active use of solar energy has been most important among the experimental building themes employed in Viikki.
Viikki EcoCity The first of the new inhabitants of Latokartano moved there in 1998 The building programme for the area is varied. People living in the high-rise buildings, smaller buildings with more than one storey, terrace houses and semi-detached houses in Latokartano will be able to choose between owning their home outright, tenant ownership rights, or renting their home.
Building’s floors Another indicator that used for population density control is authorized building’s floors. Use of height scoping is common for applying control indicator of building’s floors number for different urban areas. Index of number of building’s floors has direct effect on sky line and urban visage and therefore is an important indicator for urban designers. Briefly, authorized building’s floors method is used beside authorized occupation level for freeing the lands. Construction of high buildings in Iran has been formed based on this logic. http://region6.tehran.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=101&language=en-US
Intensity of land usage Intensity of land usage is used for construction and population density as a more complete index. This index controls development and construction in the land simultaneously with residential population numbers. In the other words, intensity of land usage controls infrastructure of land and residential units’ numbers simultaneously. In addition, it determines minimum parking, open and residential needed spaces. Base of intensity of land usage index is ratio of infrastructure of building to land area. Numerical scale of measuring the intensity of land usage is in exponential form. If the intensity of land usage be 2.5 % and reaches to 2%, then equivalent building density will be 5%; and if intensity of land usage reaches to 3% then building density will be doubled and reach to 10%. This difference increases at higher intensities of land usage and can be seen more clearly, so that when intensity of land usage increases from 6% to 7%, then building density will be increase from 80% to 160% and if intensity of land usage increases from 7% to 8% then building density will be increase from 160% to 320%. http://region6.tehran.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=101&language=en-US
Viikki EcoCity as science district Viikki has become a green university campus district. The Viikki Science Park is at the heart of the new town district. The Science Park is a centre for research, study and entrepreneurship focused on biology and biotechnology that has grown up around Helsinki University institutions. The University’s faculties of agriculture and forestry, biosciences and pharmacy, and veterinary medicine are all now located at Viikki. To aid start-up companies two company incubator units have been included in the Science Park.
KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN What has been done? Cooperation and coordination in Regional level: Greater Helsinki Vision Competition Climate Strategy for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area 2030 Helsinki Regional Area Transport System Plan (HLJ 2011) Waste Act on behalf of the YTV member municipalities (4) Active interaction in governance level Problems: Dispersion of regional structure, scattered development Division in municipal structure (strong autonomy) Lack of strong and comprehensive regional policy on developing means and paths
SMART GREEN CITY PLANNING UNTUK MASA DEPAN Perkembangan kawasan kota yang semakin pesat menyebabkan tingginya desakan terhadap pemenuhan kebutuhan ruang hunian dan aktivitas ekonomi. Hal tersebut berpotensi menimbulkan berbagai masalah yang bisa menciptakan urban paradox, di mana kota yang diharapkan menciptakan kesejahteraan justru melahirkan kantong- kantong kemiskinan baru. http://green-city-015.blogspot.com/
GREEN CITY IN THE WORLD = Victoria, British Columbia http://ecopreservationsociety.org/site/index.php/the-news/sustainability/356-5-green-cities-of-the-future Victoria, British Columbia, plans to be carbon-neutral by 2012. Its Dockside Green pro ject brings that goal closer to realization. The environmentally sustainable plans for Dockside Green combine residential, commercial, light industrial and green space on 15 acres (roughly 0.06 square kilometers) of harbor-front land.
Sweden GothenburgGothenburg, and especially Älvstaden (central city by the river Göta Älv) are good examples of sustainable city in Sweden.Älvstaden They have low environmental impact, contain passive houses, good recycling system for waste, etc.
Korea Songdo IBDSongdo IBD is a planned city in Korea which has incorporated a number of eco-friendly features. These include a central park, irrigated with seawater, a subway line, bicycle lanes, rainwater catchment systems, pneumatic waste collection system,... Finally, 75% of the waste generated by the construction of the city will be recycled.
Canada In 2010, Calgary ranked as the top eco- city in the planet for its, "excellent level of service on waste removal, sewage systems, and water drinkability and availability, coupled with relatively low air pollution.”Calgary OttawaOttawa ranked in third place. The survey was performed in conjunction with the reputable Mercer Quality of Living SurveyMercer
Australia The City of Moreland in Melbourne's north, has programs for becoming carbon neutral, one of which is 'Zero Carbon Moreland', amongst other existing sustainable implementations and proposals.Zero Carbon Moreland City of MelbourneCity of Melbourne. Over the past 10 years, various methods of improving public transport have been implemented, car free zones and entire streets have also been implemented.
Working through the 5-year Sustainability Plan for the City of San Francisco: 1.Air QualityAir Quality 2.BiodiversityBiodiversity 3.Energy, Climate Change and Ozone DepletionEnergy, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion 4.Food and AgricultureFood and Agriculture 5.Hazardous MaterialsHazardous Materials 6.Economy and Economic DevelopmentEconomy and Economic Development 7.Environmental JusticeEnvironmental Justice 8.Human HealthHuman Health 9.Parks, Open Spaces and StreetscapesParks, Open Spaces and Streetscapes 10.Solid WasteSolid Waste 11.TransportationTransportation 12.Water and WastewaterWater and Wastewater 13.Municipal ExpendituresMunicipal Expenditures 14.Public Information and EducationPublic Information and Education 15.Risk Management (Activities of High Environmental Risk)Risk Management (Activities of High Environmental Risk)
URBAN AIR QUALITY Airborne pollutants can be classified broadly into two categories: primary and secondary. Primary pollutants are those that are emitted into the atmosphere by sources such as fossil fuel combustion from power plants, vehicle engines and industrial production, by combustion of biomass for agricultural or land-clearing purposes, and by natural processes such as windblown dust, volcanic activity and biologic respiration. Secondary pollutants are formed within the atmosphere when primary pollutants react with sunlight, oxygen, water and other chemicals present in the air. http://www.worstpolluted.org/projects_reports/display/64
KUALITAS UDARA KOTA Outdoor air pollution in the context of public health is characterized by several major airborne pollutants. Particulate Matter (PM), Tropospheric Ozone (O3), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) are some of the most commonly monitored pollutants. Particulate matter in the atmosphere is mainly attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal and diesel fuel, and is composed of tiny particles of solids and liquids including ash, carbon soot, mineral salts and oxides, heavy metals such as lead, and other organic compounds. SUMBER: http://www.worstpolluted.org/projects_reports/display/64
Kepadatan lalulintas di jalanan Kota Malang Emisi kendaraan bermotor menjadi faktor utama penentu kualitas udara kota Foto smno 2011