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Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)

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1 Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)
Everyone Produced by the Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) 2003 Accompanying CD is in envelope on back cover. For additional free copies of this presentation, please call Carla Everett, TAHC public info, or Relies on Agriculture!

2 Ranchers Feed the Community
Homes, furniture Livestock Market Medical care Veterinarians Restaurants Bank The U.S. cattle industry is made up of more than 1 million small businesses--farms and ranches--operating in all states….(Texas has 150,000+ herds). There is a large trickle-down effect from the agricultural industry---a rancher lives in a community….raises cattle or other livestock…and spends money with his or her family. They support the livestock market…grocery store, the veterinarians…doctors…clothing stores…amusements like movies and restaurants…and truck dealerships, feed stores…and schools and churches. All of this creates additional jobs, supporting the community. Just as an example (provided by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association): during the l990s, the production of U.S. beef generated $30 billion annually….near five times that..or $15 billion was generated in related economic output--jobs in related fields--food processing--products made from livestock--like clothing…furniture…medicines, etc. When agriculture wins…everyone wins! Shows/fairs Feed store Truck dealer, repair shop, gas station Grocery store hardware store Schools & churches

3 We feed the nation Only TWO of every 100 people in the U.S. are DIRECTLY involved in production agriculture…However, because of the tremendous strides made in biology, genetics, chemistry and the practical applications of science, the U.S. can produce enough to feed itself--and still have plenty left over to share with the world. (Info taken from the Journal of Agricultural Education, 1999.) And, it’s not JUST food! Our quality of life would be greatly affected, if we did not have the animal-derived products that lighten our loads, enhance our appearance, or aid in maintaining our health.

4 We feed the world Billions of dollars’ worth of meat products and animal related Products--such as hides--are shipped internationally from the U.S. each year. The largest foreign markets for U.S. products include Mexico, Japan and Canada.

5 cheese, butter & ice cream!
Got Milk? You bet--plus cheese, butter & ice cream! According to the Texas Agricultural Statistics, Texas’ 900 dairies ranks sixth in the nation for production… and contributes nearly a billion dollars to the Texas economy!

6 top consumers of ice cream!
Americans are world’s top consumers of ice cream! Texas 2nd in U.S. for production; Texans eat 60+ gallons each yearly. According to Texas Agricultural Statistics… Texas produced 37 million pounds of cottage cheese in 2002. Texas Department of Health reports Texas has 13 regulated cheese manufacturing plants and 64 frozen dessert plants…all of which provide needed jobs for Texans! Texas Department of Health: Interesting site for ice cream facts:

7 2002 23 million cattle fed in 2,189 U.S. feedlots 62% of cattle
fed in TX, OK, KS, NM, CO Thinking about beef is easy in Texas…we’ve got well over 14 million head of cattle in this state! Nearly everyone with a backyard big enough has a cow, calf or show animal they’re caring for…At last count, Texas had around 150,000 herds, and most have about 40 head of cattle. Before going to slaughter, nearly all will be “finish fed” at a feedlot --many of which are also in Texas--or neighboring states. (Statistical information from Texas Cattle Feeders Association.)

8 Big Picture: Cattle Feeding feedlot 10 feedlots 20 feedlots
No wonder the Panhandle of Texas is called “feedlot country.” It’s a perfect setting for feeding out animals before slaughter…manure doesn’t run off into streams…there aren’t too many big towns around…and feed can be grown on the open plains and shipped to the feedlots easily. 10 feedlots 20 feedlots

9 Texas: Fed Cattle Slaughter Plants Amarillo Booker Cactus Childress
Corpus Christi Friona Hereford Plainview Most of our cattle slaughter plans are also near the feedlots, which makes perfectly good sense. Of course, we have a number of smaller slaughter plants scattered across the state, but these bigger ones handle most of the feedlot cattle. (Map info from the Texas Cattle Feeders Association.)

10 69 lbs consumption per year
Beef product produced from this area: 7, 100,000,000 lbs or enough to feed 102,898,550 people for a year This figure was calculated on a carcass, which provides 500 pounds of meat…multiplied by the number of fed cattle in the Panhandle area…divided by 69 pounds of consumption per year. 500 lbs/meat/carcass x 69 lbs consumption per year

11 Hamburgers! Cheeseburgers! America's 5.4 billion a year FAVORITES!
Where would America be without its burgers?

12 Texas: country’s top producer of sheep and goats
The rocky pastures of West Texas are perfect for raising sheep and goats! While the sheep are sheared for their wool, and goat meat is enjoyed at many barbecues, most of the meat from these animals is eaten outside of Texas. Best markets include the East Coast and Mexico.

13 Ham-let?

14 Swine 800,000 800,000 head Permits for 50 operations; 5.6 million hogs
700,000 144,000 120,000 20,000 Most of the swine production facilities in Texas are in the Panhandle, where more there are 800,000 heads, most in very large corporate operations. The government regulatory entities for air and water quality have issued, or are in the process of issuing permits to allow another 50 operations to be established in the Panhandle, which would eventually house 5.6 million hogs. Smaller swine operations are scattered throughout the state, but many producers have turned to raising show pigs. In the lower third of Kansas, there are about 700,000 pigs, while all of Colorado has only about 800,000. New Mexico has very few commercial swine operations. These statistics were collected from state agricultural statistics reports. 800,000 head Permits for 50 operations; 5.6 million hogs

15 51 lbs consumption per year
Pork product produced from this area: 333,320,000 lbs or enough to feed 6,535,686 people for a year The product numbers were also collected from agricultural statistics reports. The number of servings were based on a carcass that would yield 130 pounds of product. The average person consumes about 51 pounds of pork--(bacon, ham, hotdogs) per year, so this area can provide pork products for about 6.5 million people per year. 130 lbs/meat/carcass x 51 lbs consumption per year

16 Americans Love Their “Dogs!”
20 billion+ hot dogs eaten in 2001! Enough to stretch hot dogs to the moon & back almost four times! Five Texas cities in top 10 “dog towns!” San Antonio Corpus Christi Dallas Fort Worth Houston Statistics on hot dogs “gleaned” from the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council at Calculation of earth/moon based on six-inch hot dogs x 20 billion / 12 (inches to feet) / 5,280 (feet in mile) = 1,893,939 miles Distance to moon from earth 238,900 miles. 1,893,939 / 238,900 = 7.9 one-way trips to the moon

17 Participation vs. Commitment
Bacon & Eggs Transition to poultry…. Old joke…hen participates in laying eggs.. pig COMMITS to producing bacon! Participation vs. Commitment

18 Texas produced 4.7 billion eggs in 2002-- 18 % of the nation’s total
Eggs used in everything from cookies, breads, ice cream, to puddings and mayonnaise

19 Eeek! Average American eats 77 lbs of poultry each year!
Did you know? More than half the chicken noodle soup in the U.S. Is sold during the cold and flu season! Fried chicken most popular poultry dish in restaurants

20 More than Meat! The gum you chew…boots your family wears…most grooming aids…even marshmallows, jello and many candies…all contain livestock derivatives. So, if anyone tells you they’re a vegetarian, ask them if they use brake fluid in their car….use medications…even a band-aid--which uses a milk-based adhesive! Do they use hand lotion? Lanolin from sheep is a perfect skin conditioner! Do their children color with crayons? Another derivative product!

21 Treatment for blood clots
Medical uses Insulin Skin grafts for burn victims Thyroid medication Cleansing agents for wounds, ulcers Treatment for blood clots Allergy, respiratory and arthritis treatments

22 wool sweaters down-filled jackets polishes & waxes textiles photo film
detergents, fabric softeners photo film paints & plastics

23 Ink & high gloss for magazines
Soaps Shampoos Shaving Cream Deodorants Toothpaste Cosmetics Contact lens cleaners Ink & high gloss for magazines

24 Crayolas Jello! Glue

25 Violin strings-- for romantic music! candles bone china

26 Pet food Chew bones Biscuits Collars, leashes Luggage, shoes & boots!

27 2 billion pounds produced
Chicken feathers! 2 billion pounds produced each year in the U.S…. or 1 billion pillows! Other uses… • add to paper, plastics • air filters, plant pots • computer chips!?!? Chicken feathers have been found to be excellent for filtering or screening out dust and dirt, so they’re a great additive to air filters, papers and even disposable plant pots. There’s even been research to use cleaned, shredded feathers for diaper filler... Ground up, parts of the feathers can be recycled as feed products. It’s also been found that feathers can be can be added to plastics to make lightweight materials for use in cars and boats.…and recently, it’s been discovered that feathers will work to conduct electricity in computer chips!

28 Threats of Disease international traffic Changing lifestyles
Increased international traffic Now that we know how widespread the livestock industry--and its related industries are…take a moment to think about the risks. Livestock health is the key to the continuing ability to trade, not only around the world, but even just within our own state. And, there’s a lot of pressures on livestock health--- International travel--and the potential for bringing home diseases and pests. Changing lifestyles--and the desire to import new, exotic livestock and pets Environmental concerns--how we handle carcass disposal…the availability of insecticides to kill dangerous pests…or regulations on the use of antibiotics or anti-viral medications for livestock…. Changing lifestyles Environmental concerns

29 Increased International
Traffic 14 million livestock poultry & zoo animals imported yearly Increased International Traffic 1.3 million tourists daily to U.S. 1.3 million tourists daily to U.S. 14 million livestock poultry & zoo animals imported yearly Each day, more than 1.3 million persons from other countries land on U.S. soil! And every year, 14 million head of livestock, poultry and zoo animals--and exotic pets from other countries are imported… Gone are the days when we traded just with our neighbors or traveled only as far as the next county or next state. We now have a true global economy that can travel in hours!

30 Speed Kills! Viruses & bacteria can travel ‘round the world in hours
With the high speed of travel comes the risk of inadvertently moving a virus or bacteria in a matter of hours…. For example…in spring/summer 2003, monkeypox was introduced into the U.S. for the first time. Monkeypox is related to smallpox, and is carried by animals…in this case, disease specialists think it was carried into the U.S. by Gambian rats imported for the disease trade. What makes it worse…these rats were housed with prairie dogs that had been captured for sale as pets all over the country! About 90 people were sickened…and an all-out effort was made to ensure that none of these imported rats…or the potentially sick prairie dogs were released into the wild, where they could spread the disease to more species of animals! While we have strict import regulations on most species of animals, some of the exotic “pocket pets” have been overlooked…but you can bet the U.S. regulatory agencies will be imposing more strict import requirements on these animals!

31 Food products confiscated at ports of entry into the U.S.!
Food brought into the U.S. by international travelers--and American citizens returning from vacations overseas also pose a significant threat, because bacteria and viruses can stay alive in underprocessed or uncooked meats. At Miami, Florida’s airport, thousands of pounds of meat and meat products are confiscated and incinerated every day, along with fruits, flowers, and other products that may harbor a disease or pest dangerous to the U.S. One of the biggest dangers is that the meat might be brought into the U.S., become rancid, and then be thrown out, where wild pigs or other animals could eat the product, become sick and begin a disease outbreak.

32 Increased International Traffic
military operations-- Iraq Persian Gulf Bosnia Afghanistan Military operations around the world pose another danger…as most of our conflicts take place in areas of the world where disease has not been controlled--or where diseases considered to be foreign to the U.S. are prevalent. A few years ago, for instance, a military soldier was brought home from Grenada, where a conflict was being waged….He had been injured, but had not healed. When his wound was opened in surgery, it was found that he had screwworms in the wound! Screwworms are a fly larvae that eat only fresh flesh, not the rotting, decayed matter that most larvae feast on. Before screwworms were eradicated from the U.S. back in the l960s and early 70s, millions of dollars were spent treating the deep, gouged wounds of infested animals. Many young animals were lost to these pests.

33 Changing Lifestyles Exotic animals: llamas ostriches • emus
pot-bellied pigs game animals We return again to the changing lifestyles…and the desire to have new and unusual pets or livestock… When ostriches were first becoming popular, a shipment was brought in from Africa, and even though they had been in quarantine…some very dangerous ticks were missed. These ticks could have caused livestock illness--and even worse--could have infected American ticks, so that we might have had a huge outbreak of disease. Each time we decide to introduce a new species…or take animals from a new country, it is imperative that appropriate studies be done to ensure that we won’t also be bringing in a devastating livestock--or human disease.

34 May not realize an intentional act... planning doesn’t change
Agricultural Bioterrorism Then, of course, high on everyone’s radar is the possibility of bioterrorism---referred to as agro-terrorism when it applies to agricultural. Chances are, we wouldn’t know immediately if a disease outbreak was caused deliberately or through accidental introduction of a bacteria, virus or pest. We would need to stop the spread of disease and let law enforcement officials and epidemiologists work together to determine where and how the disease agent was introduced into the country. May not realize an intentional act... planning doesn’t change

35 Disease Outbreaks Cut producers off from markets Disease eradication
costs very high The Office of International Epizooties, or OIE, operates from Paris, France, and is where more than 200 countries report eradication or outbreaks of disease, so that potential trading partners have documentation readily available. For the U.S., the U.S. Department of Agriculture is the “gatekeeper” for our borders, setting health standards for animals to enter…checking incoming shipments, and ensuring that required tests are run. The state veterinarians for each state work to ensure the health of the animals within the confines of that particular state. In Texas, it’s the Texas Animal Health Commission--or TAHC…in addition to requiring animals to have routine health checks by a veterinarian before show or rodeos, the state veterinarian’s office also takes calls about unusual signs of illnesses in livestock. Each year in Texas, the TAHC receives about 100 calls to investigate a potential foreign animal disease. Samples are collected, investigations are conducted, and the producers are instructed to keep the animals in place until laboratory results are known. If a foreign animal disease enters the U.S., it can wreak havoc on the rancher’s business, as movement restrictions are imposed, and a disease eradication effort is undertaken. Products in affected areas lose value! ALL businesses are affected!

36 Livestock Disease Could Break the Bank!
2002 US Export Values: Pork: $1.5 billion Beef: $3.2 billion If we had a foreign animal disease outbreak, the livestock production industry---and it’s related businesses--could be in serious trouble! We export billions of dollars in product to other countries. Not only would international trade stop, but livestock movement would be prohibited in the state or states where the disease occurred….and other countries would refuse our products! Many times, a foreign animal disease affects not only ONE, but more than ONE species of animal. For instance…In 2001, Great Britain had an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease…a virus that causes cloven-hooved animals to develop serious blistering…Animals affected included sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle! Even horses were often restricted, because even though they weren’t susceptible to the disease, they might mechanically CARRY the virus from one farm to another. Chickens couldn’t be moved, because trucks might be contaminated….The effect was horrible…and in the end, more than 6 million animals were killed to stop the spread of the disease. Biggest markets: Japan, Mexico, Canada

37 Livestock Disease Could Break the Bank!
Texas: 6th leading exporter of poultry and poultry products. 2001: $137 + million exported The same situation applies to the poultry industry, which depends on international exports, because it has become so efficient and produces so much product! Biggest markets: Japan, Mexico, Canada

38 Exotic Newcastle Disease ‘02-03, California
3.9 million chickens depopulated -- Issues: Producer stress Marketing losses Disposal Manpower $$ Disease spread?!? An example of a recent foreign poultry disease outbreak occurred in California in October 2002, and as of June 2003, was still ongoing. Fighting chickens were diagnosed with the foreign poultry virus known as Exotic Newcastle Disease. The virus, which is deadly to all species of birds, spread quickly, and by May 2003, state and federal teams had killed more than 3.9 million birds to stop the disease. California lost its ability to market to many countries during the outbreak. A disease outbreak can cost millions and millions of dollars to eradicate, as teams must be on site for weeks at time to fight the disease. Then there’s the cost of paying farmers and ranchers for their lost product, and disposing of millions of carcasses.

39 World’s most economically devastating livestock disease
Foot-and-mouth disease… World’s most economically devastating livestock disease Foot-and-mouth disease… World’s most economically devastating livestock disease The disease we worry about most is probably foot-and-mouth disease….a virus that causes sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and any other cloven-hooved animal to develop blisters in and around the mouth, nose, hooves and teats. Fortunately, the U.S. has not had an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease since l929…and Canada and Mexico have been free of the disease since the l950s. However, Great Britain had an outbreak in 2001 that cost more than $6 billion….cost millions in lost tourism…and lost thousands of jobs for citizens who were in the livestock or tourist related industries. You might wonder why tourism was so greatly affected--folks travel to Great Britain to see beautifully manicured pastures full of sheep or cattle…and during a disease outbreak that struck so harshly, what they saw were quarantine signs, veterinarians and staff in white suits to prevent disease spread, and fires burning the carcasses of animals that had to be put down to stop the spread of disease.

40 Foot-and-mouth disease “trickle-down” effect soon
hits all business Foot-and-mouth disease “trickle-down” effect soon hits all business During the outbreak in Great Britain, six veterinarians from the Texas Animal Health Commission, the state’s regulatory agency for livestock and poultry health, and several others from the USDA in Texas worked on the disease eradication teams. Nearly 300 veterinarians from the U.S. assisted with the disease fighting effort--and it was a learning process for the veterinarians who had never worked on such a large-scale effort. The disease took a huge toll on animals…and on the spirit of Great Britain…as some farmers lost years of genetics in their animals….as the livestock were euthanized to stop the disease from spreading further.

41 Great Britain 2001 Final stats…2030 FMD cases
4.1m animals destroyed to stop disease 2m animals “humanely” slaughtered 10,195 farms depopulated By the end of 2001, the outbreak had been stopped, But at a very high cost…4.1 million animals were killed to stop the spread of infection. Another 2 million animals were humanely slaughtered, because farmers were not able to move the animals from their premises, and they had run out of feed or grass. In all, more than 10,000 farms in Great Britain were depopulated--or had all their susceptible livestock slaughtered. The saving grace? The government did pay the farmers fair market value for their livestock…but farmers then had to start all over again when they were allowed to restock their pastures. This is a good lesson for two things: 1. Keep disease out 2. Encourage early reporting, so that disease can’t get “ahead” of the veterinarians and teams working to stamp out an outbreak. Final stats…2030 FMD cases 4.1m animals destroyed to stop disease 2m animals “humanely” slaughtered 10,195 farms depopulated

42 Report! Sudden unexplained death loss of in the herd or flock
It is vitally important that livestock owners report disease problems immediately to their veterinarian--or to a regulatory agency that can assist with specialized testing--like the USDA or the Texas Animal Health Commission. Among the five signs of a potential foreign animal disease: Sudden death loss in a herd or flock. Sudden death loss of a number of animals is an indication something catastrophic has hit the herd or flock…and sometimes, it can be a poison, or a disease like anthrax, that occurs naturally in the ground. Other times, it could be the introduction of a foreign animal disease that must be dealt with quickly.

43 Report severe illness! and staggering, falling
The same goes for severe illness in a herd or flock… Or if animals begin to fall, stumble or stagger…a foreign animal disease diagnostician from the USDA or TAHC can make a ranch call with a private veterinarian--or alone--and take the appropriate blood and tissue samples to send to the foreign animal disease lab. and staggering, falling

44 Blistering on or around an animal’s mouth, nose, teats or hooves.
Blisters can indicate that animals have gotten into at toxic substance…or it could signal an outbreak of foot and mouth disease--the disease we fear most. Never let blisters go! It’s best to have them checked out!

45 Report! Unusual ticks or maggots
Finally, unusual ticks or maggots…could signal an introduction of the screwworm…or ticks that you don’t recognize could be foreign ticks brought in on imported animals or products. Don’t hesitate to call for help if you see something unusual. Livestock owners are not charged for the services provided by the foreign animal disease diagnostician from the USDA or TAHC.

46 Protect Your Herd! • Call your veterinarian... • USDA-APHIS-VS
at • TAHC at or your TAHC area office! Protect Your Herd! Call your veterinarian... • USDA-APHIS-VS at • TAHC at or your TAHC area office! If you have any of these five signs in your animals, call the TAHC or USDA…the TAHC operates a 24-hour hotline that is “personned” by a disease diagnostician. Don’t wait. Call if you have a disease problem. What we do in the first 24 hours can be more important to the disease eradication effort than what happens during the next six months. Remember. Everyone relies on agriculture, so everyone has a role in ensuring that livestock remain healthy, so we can market locally, nationally, and internationally.

47 Produced By the Texas Animal Health Commission

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