2 Today: The official agenda: Outcomes and summary from recent PTPs Touch CurrentHeating transformersHeating switchesCables, conductor resistance and insulation thicknessA walk down the road………Learning from HistoriesThe guilty and the innocentEffectiveness testing
4 Raise hands Who attended the 2013 CTL PTP Workshop? Who took something of benefit home with them?Who shared the workshop content with their co-workers?Whose laboratories changed ANY procedure as a result of attending the workshop?How will we get MORE from attending the workshop?
5 September 2013, was NSW’s hottest and driest September since the beginning of weather record keeping. In October 2013, NSW was on fire.
8 2 people lost their lives The damage costs were enormous.Many insurance policies will not pay.
9 Then... In the face of devastation Starts the “BLAME GAME”.The green (political) party is at fault because back burning was legislated outThe government has done nothing to mitigate climate changeLocal authorities (that approve building work) allowed us to build hereThe parents of those naughty children that started fires should have minded their kids.
10 We were not told how to prepare our house The staff did not know how to perform the testWe didn’t know how to use the fire equipmentThe staff was not trained to use the equipmentWe didn’t know there was a ban on lighting fires outside at this timeWe didn’t know we should apply the standard
20 Point 3 was expected to yield a very high result (7.5 mA, 240 V input) 64 laboratories reported a measurement less than 3.5 mA, including >20 “0” results.An additional 24 laboratories reported the words “pass” as the result.88 laboratories would have passed an unsafe sample.Small resistors
22 Point 4 was not connected to any part of the circuit Point 4 was not connected to any part of the circuit. (A rivet attached to the plastic box.)193 laboratories reported a measurement greater than zero, up to 0.05 mA.24 laboratories reported greater than 0.05 mA.8 laboratories reported greater than 3.5 mA.
28 Bringing renewal about From where does change need to originate?Technical staff?Supervisors?Lab managers?Company heads?ISO/IEC Top management shall provide evidence of commitment to the development and implementation of the management system and to continually improving its effectiveness.
32 Equipment30-40% additional labs are required to perform follow up activities if equipment audits occurred.The audits issued by IFM receive “outliers” ONLY when the reported measurement is contrary to the requirements in the standard.Test staff perform the audit, but nobody seems to CHECK the audit results – EXCEPT IFM.Why do labs wait for IFM to tell them to comply with the standard?
33 The IFM equipment audits relating to PTP are NOT comprehensive. Equipment performance needs to be verified and/or validated – IFM cannot “audit” thisItems such as steadiness of power supply, also need to be checked. Who does this?Who will believe the lab checks equipment performance if the PTP audits show labs do not get the basic equipment questions right?
34 ISO/IEC5.5.2 Equipment and its software shall be capable of meeting the accuracy required and shall comply with specifications Before being placed into service, equipment shall be calibrated or checked to see it .... complies with the relevant standard specifications It shall be checked and/or calibrated before use.
35 5.5.3 Equipment shall be operated by authorised personnel 5.5.5c records shall be maintained of .... Checks that equipment complies with the specification
36 5.2 Personnel5.2.1 the laboratory management shall ensure the COMPETENCE of all who (perform tasks). ...Personnel performing specific tasks shall be qualified on the basis of appropriate education, training, experience and/or demonstrated skills....The laboratory shall have a policy for identifying needs and providing training THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING ACTIONS SHALL BE EVALUATED.
37 Discussion: What does it mean to train someone? General education on conceptsPass on skill and knowledgeMake information easily available and keep it up to dateScope of training to be defined (depth of understanding vs monkey-work)MentorshipExplanation of procedureDemonstration/observationWorks under supervisionEffectiveness of training assessment, discussion and demonstrationApproval for testingStill OK after time?Provide info for the trainee to absorbMore intensive obtaining of info, not to forgetAssessment of both knowledge and skillsBehaviour of the trainee – observation
39 13e33 Test method Attach conductors between switch and power source Attach thermocouples to specified part of switchMount the switch on wooden surfaceApply suitable specified current.Monitor until steady state has been reached (as stated in ALL standards quoted)Determine the temperature riseVariation – on one of the samples, perform additional actuations while “live”. This was only to demonstrate whether initial actuations were adequate to clear manufacturing residues from switch.
40 Questions relating to 13e33 I would like to ask more detail with the testing method of DC supply, we have no DC power source with high power like 12A and we just only have 3A with low voltage. So can we skip the part of the DC measurement and providing with AC?Answer: it is specified in instructions only to apply tests in scope
41 So Which program (part01 or part 02) should I enter the result at online system ? Answer: Instructions contain information about part01 and part02
42 17025 section 4.4 Concept: In PTP – the provider is the customer Review of requests, tenders and contracts...4.4.1.a ensure that the customer’s requirements are understood, including methods to be usedConcept: In PTP – the provider is the customer
43 I setup my test circuit today with the test switches installed I setup my test circuit today with the test switches installed. Something is wrong. Neither one of the switches are working. They do not allow current to pass. I checked the switches when we received them by performing 20 mechanical operations and they were fine. The test results are due in 17 days.Answer: run current through the switch according to the instructions, not across the insulation.
46 Group ExerciseIdentify the aspects of training that would be required for staff to set up a heating test in switchesHow will effectiveness of training be determined?How will the performance of all staff doing this test be monitored?
47 Training? Standard Procedure Thermocouples: preparation, selection, fixing, attachment, positioningLoadConnectionControl of environmental conditionsPower supplyInstallationTimeEquip specificationCalibrationUsing equipPersonal safety
48 Ishikawa Materials Methods Equipment Problem Measurement Environment People
52 Person Training Supervision Competence Skill (2) We did not understand CTL DS 335 about steady state(1) Requesting Temperature rise in Kelvin was a dirty trick!(1) We did the wrong testTrainingSupervisionCompetenceSkillAbility to Think and Observe
53 Environment Control of Ambient (1) The power supply was under the test surface and contributed to heating of switch(2) Air conditioner was in direct line of switchControl of AmbientInfluence of external factors or equipment
54 (1) Accidental use of wrong thermocouple (T not K) Equipment & Materials(1) Accidental use of wrong thermocouple (T not K)(1) Wires were old and worn(2) Wrong current source used(1) Inappropriate Rectifier used(2) Monitoring device not calibratedRegulated power sourceCurrent meterThermocouplesSoldering equipCalibrationGood repair
55 Procedure Correct sample preparation (actuations, clean terminals etc) (6) Additional actuations removed residue from switch(1) TC attached without copper discs makes a difference(1) Current applied suddenly vs gradually(3) Burnt switch with soldering iron(6) TC attached incorrectly/inappropriately(1) TC attached in wrong position(2) conductor / meter connections inadequate(1) applied wrong ambient test temperatureCorrect sample preparation (actuations, clean terminals etc)Correct sample connection (conductors, thermocouples, monitoring devices)
56 Measurement..... Results in Kelvin is a dirty trick! ??..... We didn’t know when we had reached steady state... ???InterpretationUnitsCalculationObservationUnderstandingInterference
57 Both switches supplied were FAULTY. One misfitBoth switches supplied were FAULTY.Although IFM says “not so”, our NCB believes us
58 Group exerciseGiven the problems that were identified for 13e33, what changes / additions are required for the training and monitoring needs of staff identified in the last exercise?See next:
59 (2) We did not understand CTL DS 335 about steady state (1) Requesting Temperature rise in Kelvin was a dirty trick!(1) We did the wrong test(1) The power supply was under the test surface and contributed to heating of switch(2) Air conditioner was in direct line of switch(1) Accidental use of wrong thermocouple (T not K)(1) Wires were old and worn(2) Wrong current source used(1) Inappropriate Rectifier used(2) Monitoring device not calibrated(6) Additional actuations removed residue from switch(1) TC attached without copper discs makes a difference(1) Current applied suddenly vs gradually(3) Burnt switch with soldering iron (but did the test anyway)(6) TC attached incorrectly/inappropriately(1) TC attached in wrong position(2) conductor / meter connections inadequate(1) applied wrong ambient test temperature
61 Whole group exercisePick any of the “causes” identified earlier and perform 5 why analysis to obtain a theoretical root cause(Theoretical, because we have no other details apart from what is displayed.)
62 17025: 5.9 Assuring the quality of test and calibration results 5.9.1 The laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations undertaken. The resulting data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable and, where practicable, statistical techniques shall be applied to the reviewing of the results. This monitoring shall be planned and reviewed and may include, but not be limited to, the following:a) regular use of certified reference materials and/or internal quality control using secondary reference materials;b) participation in interlaboratory comparison or proficiency-testing programmes;c) replicate tests or calibrations using the same or different methods;d) retesting or recalibration of retained items;e) correlation of results for different characteristics of an item.NOTE The selected methods should be appropriate for the type and volume of the work undertaken.
63 5.9.2 Quality control data shall be analysed and, where they are found to be outside pre-defined criteria, planned action shall be taken to correct the problem and to prevent incorrect results from being reported.
64 The cost of non-conformity Failure to “get it right the first time”, eventually costs at least 3 times more than doing it right.The initial time spent doing it wrong is wastedTime is spent, normally by more than the original staff determining what happenedThe time repeating the task is lost opportunity to achieve something else
65 Cables Conductor Resistance and Insulation Thickness
72 The point about insulation thickness test Multiple measurements are made routinelyLends itself to quality activities without any additional effort or real costRetained samples can be used to report repeated measurements on “same” cable at certain cyclic times when the test is conducted.Alternatively, the standard error or %CV can be plotted in a control chart to monitor the consistency of measurements.Either of the above has little additional cost, but adds value to the confidence of the lab and its management.
73 Presentation by Udo Krischke, SGS Quality Control in Analytical Chemistry
74 Quality Control in Analytical Chemistry Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Quality Control in Analytical ChemistryDr. Udo KrischkeETF12 ConvenerCTL Meeting PT WorkshopMatsue,2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
75 Quality Control in Analytical Method Chemistry July 2007OutlineNo comprehensive trainingShare good practice from analytical chemistryIn line with ISO §5.9 requirementsREFERENCE SAMPLESCONTROL CHARTS2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
76 Reference Samples – What are they? Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Reference Samples – What are they?Reference Samples are ‘controls’ or standards used to check the quality and traceability of test results. A reference standard for a unit of measurement is an artifact that embodies the quantity of interest in a way that ties its value to the reference base for calibration.At the highest level, a primary reference standard is assigned a value by direct comparison with the Standard (metrology). A primary standard is usually under jurisdiction of a national standards body.For example, mass is defined by an artifact maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures in Sèvres, France.Since most analytical instrumentation is comparative, it requires a sample with known properties for accurate calibration. These samples are produced under stringent manufacturing procedures and differ from laboratory samples in their certification and the traceability of the data.2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
77 Reference Samples – Quality Levels Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Reference Samples – Quality LevelsCertified Reference Material (CRM)A specially manufactured and commercial available Reference Material, accompanied by a certificate, one or more of whose property values are certified by a procedure which establishes its traceability to an accurate realisation of the unit in which the property values are expressed and for which each certified value is accompanied by an uncertainty.Reference Material (RM)A purchased material or substance one or more of whose property values are sufficiently stable over time, homogeneous and well established to be used for the calibration of an apparatus, the assessment of a measurement method, or for assigning values to materials.In-house StandardsA material or substance which fulfils the quality criteria of RM but has its origin from a “real life” sample which is well enough studied to understand its relevant properties to act as a RM.2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
78 Reference Samples – What‘s next? Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Reference Samples – What‘s next?Use the RM to check your instrumentsCompare resulting values with expected valuesJudge on results based on an established acceptance or refusal protocolAct according to this document.Done?What does this single result at a given time tell you about the performance of your instrument?2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
79 Quality Control in Analytical Method Chemistry July 2007Control ChartsChart for QC samples, including reagent blanks, laboratory control samples, calibration check standards, etc OVER TIMEUpper Control Limit X + 3sUpper Warning Limit X + 2sAverageLower Warning Limit X - 2sLower Control Limit X - 3s2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
80 Control Charts - Control Chart for Means Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Control Charts - Control Chart for MeansConstructed from the average and standard deviation of a specified number of measurements of the parameter of interest.The accuracy chart includes upper and lower Warning Levels (WL) and upper and lower Control Levels (CL). Common practice is to use 2s and 3s limits for the WL and CL, respectively, where s may represent the standard deviation of the respective pre-control period.2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
81 Quality Control in Analytical Method Chemistry July 2007Practical Example of Control Charts – Cadmium in Plastic CRM acc. IEC 62321Certified Reference Material 680 , Cd content = mg/kgCertified Reference Material 681 , Cd content = 21.7 mg/kgUCLUWLExpected valueMean valueLWLLCL2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
82 Control Charts – Out of Control Situations Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Control Charts – Out of Control SituationsFigure 3Control LimitWarning LimitAverage2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
83 Control Charts – Out of Control Situations Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Control Charts – Out of Control SituationsIf the warning limits (WL) are at the 95% confidence level; statistically1 out of 20 points would exceed that WLand only 1 out of 100 would exceed the CLControl limit – one measurement exceeds a CLWarning limit – two out of three successive points exceed a WLOne point fall into the WL at one side, and the next point goes to the WL on the other sideFour out of five successive points exceed 1s, or are in decreasing or increasing orderSeven successive samples are on the same side of the average lineSeven successive point shows the same trend (up or down)2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
84 Treatment of Out-of-Control Situations Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Treatment of Out-of-Control SituationsCreate a procedure to deal with Out-of-Control Situations and act according to it!Take corrective action promptly to determine and eliminate the source of errorDo not report data until the cause of the problem identified and corrected?2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
85 Treatment of Out-of-Control Situations Quality Control in Analytical Method ChemistryJuly 2007Treatment of Out-of-Control SituationsMaintain records of all out-of-control events, determined causes, and corrective action takenInvolve lab and/or quality management in the clearing process of Out-of-Control SituationsEstablish preventive actions: not only to eliminate such events, but also to reduce repetition of the causesIdentify and clear root causes of systematic errors2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
86 Quality Control in Analytical Method Chemistry July 2007SummaryISO §5.9 asks for quality control procedures to monitor and statistically evaluate the validity of test results and calibrationsReference samples and control charts are powerful tools for everyday QA/QC in a labProvide answers to the current state of test equipment but even before out-of-control situations may happen2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
87 Quality Control in Analytical Method Chemistry July 2007Thank you for your attentionOpen questions?2007 Training Series for Chemical Testing
89 Initial questions from participants 13e32 RE: Sample Preparation and Mounting, it says Attach thermocouples to blackened copper or brass discs that are 1 mm thick and 15 mm in diameter. The discs should be placed such that they are flush with the surface of the plywood support.My question: What is the purpose to prepare the disc? How to place it? Could you please show us one picture on this disc?
90 Our lab is taking part in the IFM Electrical Proficiency Testing Program 13e32 Temperature Rise-Transformers these days. Because the different language we using, we got some communications difficulties about the program, and a question for you.1,In order to achieve the SEC1 and SEC2 output current specified in Table 1. e.g.. for 13e32 General, both of SEC1 and SEC2 output current should be 1.0A initially, and the resistance rise with the time, so the current should not be the initial current. Do we need to keep the initial current 1.0A by changing load resistance during the test till the end or keep the resistance and let the current drop or rise.
91 The instructions I’ve received do not state to load transformer with an impedance however clause 14.1 states: ‘Transformers are supplied…. And loaded with an impedance producing the rated output”Can you confirm for me if I should be loading the transformer from the start of the test?
92 We are preparing to conduct the tests for 13e32 Temperature Rise - Transformers and clarification is needed on the sample. Please confirm whether this is a Class 1 transformer. Also, are the secondaries individual or series parallel?
93 Item 5 of Sample Preparation and Mounting in your instructions said: Select wires approximately 150cm in length, with a nominal cross-sectional area of 1.5mm2. Connect wires to primary PRI and secondary windings SEC1 and SEC2. Our question: Shall we consider the resistance of wires during the test?
94 We have received sample and instruction for PTP in the subject We have received sample and instruction for PTP in the subject. I have a question about test set-up that I think is not well explained and may be interesting to other participants to the program:The primary circuit (PRI) of the transformer is clear to be connected to the input voltage of 240V, 50Hz and 60Hz; but about secondary windings (SEC1 and SEC2), in order to obtain the specified currents, (1A+1A for general and 0.9A+1.2A for ) which kind of connection is needed? Have each one to be short circuited? … Or a test load shall be applied at SEC1 and SEC2? In the last case, which kind of test load is required (resistive, inductive or mixed)?
95 Answer, according to the standard To obtain particular current in SEC 1 and SEC 2 load has to be connected.As there is not mention any cos fi load it is assumed that it should be resistive load..
96 The PT participants who are conducting a Temperature Rise test on a transformer are currently encountering challenges with regards to proceeding with the test. The reason being that they do not know what is the required resistive load to be used for this test, that should be connected to the secondary side of the transformer?Answer: the load is the one that provides the required output.
97 Are we supposed to purchase a relay for the PTP test with the transformer? The instructions did not state that.
98 Please check we have the correct configuration Don’t worry about coin currency, we are obtaining US 1c coins and will use these instead of our local currency.
100 Group exerciseBased on the requirements for a heating test in transformers, determine the training needs of staff for performance of this test.How will the effectiveness of training be determined?How will ongoing monitoring be conducted for all staff performing such tests in the laboratory?
107 For transformer heating tests What would you say are the MOST critical items?? Correctly loading secondary winding(s)? Reaching steady state?? Rapid measurement of resistance after disconnect? Equipment can “manage” the rapid readings? Reading for sufficient time after disconnect to ensure the curve is right?
108 Examine the following data (take notes, please) Timing of the first readings after disconnect?Time intervals between readings?Duration that readings were performedTotal number of readings
116 Discuss For the previous slides What similarities and differences were noted with timing of the first readings?Time intervals between readings?Duration that readings were performedTotal number of readingsIs the MU affected by the above variables?For CTL document 251D, should we be specifying only equipment accuracy for this test, or should we be including its performance/capability to measure values for heating test? (It might be accurate, but only good for static readings.)
118 Person Training Supervision Competence Skill (4) Typos/careless mistakes/calculation(6) did not understand and/or training in standard(3) poor training other than above(1) lack of supervision or oversightTrainingSupervisionCompetenceSkillAbility to Think and Observe
119 Environment Control of Ambient (2) Ventilation directly affecting sample(1) Bad control of ambient tempControl of AmbientInfluence of external factors or equipment
120 (3) Ohm meter capabilities (Too much time to stabilise Not suitable) Equipment & Materials(3) Ohm meter capabilities (Too much time to stabilise Not suitable)(2) Not functioning to spec(2) quality of electrical connectionRegulated power sourceVolt / Current meterResistive loadThermocouplesSoldering equip?CalibrationGood repair
121 Procedure Correct sample preparation (8) did not place sample on copper discs to obtain max temp(3) copper discs not flush with surface(1) did not follow internal procedure(2) did not wait for steady state(2) wrong procedure followed(1) windings separately loaded(1) incorrect testing set-upCorrect sample preparationCorrect sample connection (conductors, thermocouples, monitoring devices)
122 Measurement(3) Choice of equipment inappropriate(3) Interpolation or extrapolation of resistance data(1) Did not correctly read resultInterpretationUnitsCalculationObservationUnderstandingInterference
124 Evaluate this corrective action This is already 2nd attempt for submission. (Lab was asked to propose preventive actions.)According to the participation in proficiency test program 13e32 temperature rise of transformer, most of our test results are outlier from the acceptable range. See details in results report of this program
125 Root cause analysisWe installed the transformer on a test corner inside a test room. We also used additional wires connected to the transformer instead of measuring the resistance directly from the transformer.
126 RCA cont.1) The testing room is verified for air-flow at the test area every 6 months. Prior to conduct the proficiency test, the airflow was within the limit as 0.5m/s. After the proficiency test results came out, we re-verified the air-flow in the test room if this was the factor affecting the test. There was some problem at the air filter so the air-flow was higher than 0.5 m/s.2) The additional wires connection may affect the winding resistance measurement. The total resistance for each winding was different due to the additional wires.
127 Corrective action1) Reparation of air filter and re-verification of air flow and the velocity is less than 0.5 m/s. Then re-testing is conducted.2) The winding resistance measurement is measured as close as the transformer terminals.Preventive actionReduce the verification period as every month to ensure the air-flow does not exceed the limitDid the laboratory get to the root cause?Do the actions address the root cause?
128 Learning from histories Big pictureLearning from histories
129 Take this downO = “opened” something was entered in IFM’s systemX = reminder sent by IFMA = acknowledgement received from labN = IFM notified lab about somethingR = response received from lab, but not enough to closeS = status (summary for management)C = item was closedF = item was referred to IECEE as over due
130 Group exerciseFrom the handout and from each laboratory (separately), look at the participation history. Determine performance over time (tally in 4 time frames)before 2008,,After 2013What are the number of outliers in each time frame? (success rate%)Are there potential problem topics?In your opinion, should the lab focus on any particular topic?Are there common threads with respect to reasons for outliers which the lab should pay attention to?Are there other recommendations?
131 Temp. Rise - Transformers. 05e24. 200510. 13e32. 201307. Touch Current Temp. Rise - Transformers 05e e Touch Current 09eO 6/01/2010 Frequency range of instrument calibrations is questioned.R 21/01/2010 laboratory requested clarification on the nature of the outlier.C 28/01/2010 revised calibration certificate received.