Presentation on theme: "1 La planificación de secuencias didácticas desde un enfoque plurilingüe e intercultural Dirección de Capacitación Provincia de Buenos Aires"— Presentation transcript:
1 La planificación de secuencias didácticas desde un enfoque plurilingüe e intercultural Dirección de Capacitación Provincia de Buenos Aires Capacitador ETR Oscar Marino 2014
2 FIRST MEETING Communicative competence
OUTCOMES FOR THE FIRST MEETING By the end of this meeting, participants will have: Understood the definition of translanguaging and how it captures the ways in which it can be used in our contexts. Experienced translanguaging for engaging content and higher-order thinking Reviewed some strategies for structuring and facilitating effective translanguaging in a classroom Reviewed new definitions of communicative competence and rationales for the use of planned L1 Analized a unit in the Cuaderno de Trabajo de 1º año de secundaria from a plurilingual perspective Started to create an initial plan of a teaching sequence for incorporating more translanguaging into their classroom Reflected on the contents, materials and activities in this meeting.
Do not forget to keep a record of ideas during the meeting and share them (e.g. journal entries, plenary, graphic organizers, posters displayed on walls, cards, etc)
“Mix-up, or what´s now called Spanglish, was the language we spoke for several years. There wasn´t a sentence that wasn´t colonized by an English word. At school, a Spanish word would suddenly slide into my English like someone butting into line. Teacher, whose face I was learning to read as minutely as my mother´s, would scowl but no smile played on her lips. … Whenever I made a mistake, Teacher would shake her head slowly, “In English, YU-LEE-AH, there´s no such word as columpio. Do you mean a swing?”
I would bow my head, humiliated by the smiles and snickers of the American children around me. I grew insecure about Spanish. My native tongue was not quite as good as English, as if words like columpio were illegal immigrants trying to cross a border into another language. But Teacher´s discerning grammar-and-vocabulary-patrol cars could tell and send them back”. From “My English” by Julia Álvarez. American/Dominican writer 6
Should our students be ashamed of using their mother tongue in the English class? Should we, as teachers, feel guilty when we use L1 in the classroom or when we allow our students to mix Spanish and the target language? 7
“communicative competence” in the light of the 21 st century and in the context of the teaching and learning of English in the province of Buenos Aires
Look at this Indian boy who sells fans and speaks several languages. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6PrleqeCAPw An interview https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1foUmDN_wwo 11
Plurilingualism Plurilingual competence is the capacity to successively acquire and use different competences in different languages, at different levels of proficiency and for different functions. The central purpose of plurilingual education is to develop this competence. 12
Let´s experience what our students feel and do when they read a text in a different language. Bonnes pratiques d´enseignement d´une matiere par l´integration d´une langue etrangere autre que l´anglais
BONNES PRATIQUES D´ENSEIGNEMENT D´UNE MATIERE PAR L´INTEGRATION D´UNE LANGUE ETRANGERE AUTRE QUE L´ANGLAIS Enseigner une discipline dans une autre langue : Méthodologie et pratiques professionelles L’enseignement d’une discipline dans une autre langue est, depuis une quinzaine d’années, un nouveau paradigme issu de la didactique des langues et adopté par les autres disciplines. Cette approche peut améliorer l’apprentissage des langues sans préjudice pour les contenus disciplinaires des autres matières. Les auteurs présentent la méthodologie, les procédés et techniques d’enseignement de ces approches EMILE (l’enseignement d’une matière par l’intégration d’une langue étrangère). Ils apportent des transcriptions et exemples tirés des classes de matières pour discuter et illustrer leur démarche y compris l’évaluation de l’enseignement d’une discipline en langue étrangère. 14
Think about linguistic, discourse, strategic competences you are applying in order to understand the text. A volunteer may complete a KWL chart. How would you deal with a text like this in the classroom? 15
BONNES PRATIQUES D´ENSEIGNEMENT D´UNEMATIERE PAR L´INTEGRATION D´UNE LANGUE ETRANGERE AUTRE QUE L´ANGLAIS I knowI want to learnI learned 16
Think about linguistic, discourse, strategic competences you are applying in order to understand the text. A volunteer may complete a KWL chart. How would you deal with a text like this in the classroom? 17
Experiencing Translanguaging Let´s see 2 examples 18 We are moving towards
Why Translanguaging Is the Future! By: Jenni Vinson Translanguaging now becomes the process by which a human brain is capable of accessing two or more linguistic data bases in order to formulate a tapestry of words in various languages (all bound by the rules of English grammar) in the formation of a thought. Translanguaging is to Linguistics what a key change in the middle of a symphony is to music. Both convey a mastery of critical thinking and by no means is there a deficiency exhibited. Remember the Dominican writer Julia Alvarez and her columpio… Code switching was defined as a lapse of recalling a word in English that caused the speaker to lapse back to his/her first language. Code switching was "an idiot" moment. There is shame attached to this moment and this concept for the student who utilizes code switching in an attempt to communicate. Dr. Ofelia Garcia Dr. Ofelia Garcia demands that we leave behind the wall of negative connotation that has been erected around the concept of Bilingual Education and that we begin by taking back the linguistic database that comprises Bilingual Education and establishing definitions that match the reality of the Bilingual learner. Dr. Garcia begins the process of dismantling this imposed wall by offering, in the place of code switching, the idea of Translanguaging, a process in which two or more people who have comfort in the languages being spoken are able to interface and maneuver through an intermingling of languages without alienating any member of the group. 19
PREVIEW Building background knowledge in Spanish or English. What can we infer from the text? VIEW Purpose for reading. What talks/presentations would you go? Why? (Put your German into practice) REVIEW Talk about the strategies you used to read the text.
TRANSLANGUAGING Garcia, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. New York: Blackwell/Wiley. Translanguaging is the act performed by bilinguals of accessing different features of various modes of what are described as autonomous languages, in order to maximize communicative potential. It is an approach to bilingualism that is centered, not on languages as has often been the case, but on the practices of bilinguals in order to make sense of their multilingual worlds. Therefore, translanguaging goes beyond what has been termed codeswitching, although it includes it. 23
Theorizing Translanguaging for educators by Ofelia Garcia Divide the class in 4 groups. Each group will read the questions in each section to share with the other groups. Match Here are extracts from an article by Ofelia García, which is written in the form of questions and answers. Match each question on the left to the extract that you think comes from the answer to it. Write the corresponding letter next to the number in the third column.
Translanguaging as normal bilingual discourse 1. What is translanguaging?a. Translanguaging takes the position that language is action and practice, and not a simple system of structures and discreet sets of skills. 2. Isn’t translanguaging what others call code- switching? b. Indeed! (It involves) the ability to use language fluidly, to make meaning beyond one or two languages. 3. What is the realationship of translanguaging to language? c. Putting language practices alongside each other makes possible for students to explicitly notice language features, an awareness needed to develop linguistic abilities. 4. Is translanguaging a valid discursive practice?d. … the concept of dynamic bilingualism refers to a bilingual competence that is not based on cognitive differences, but on the different practices of bilinguals (…)Translanguaging is the enactment of this dynamic bilingualism. Translanguaging as pedagogical strategies that use bilingualism as resource 5. In what ways does translanguaging offer teachers ways to teach rigorous content to bilingual students? e. …that new language practices only emerge in interrelationship with old language practices. Thus, bilingual education programs, as well as English as a second language programs, are creating opportunities for students to use their entire linguistic repertoire and not just part of it to develop bilingualism and/or develop language practices that conform to the academic uses of language in school, as well as to learn rigorous content. 6. Isn’t it better to teach any language solely through that language? Shouldn’t English only be used to teach English? Shouldn’t Spanish only be used when teaching Spanish? f. … translanguaging is not simply going from one language code to another (…) 7. How does translanguaging help students develop metalinguistic awareness? g. … flexible use of linguistic resources to make meaning… Translanguaging Beyond Traditional Bilingualism And Second Language Teaching And Learning 8. How does dynamic bilingualism relate to translanguaging? h. … Translanguaging affords the opportunity to use home language practices, different as they may be from those of school, to practice the language of school, and thus to eventually also use the appropriate form of language. (…)Translanguaging provides a way to make rigorous content instruction comprehensible. Translanguaging as a pedagogical strategy offers more direct ways to teach rigorous content, at the same time that academic uses of language are developed. (…)Translanguaging simply has the potential to expand thinking and understanding. 25
What Translanguage is what it is not. 26
Communicative repertoires A communicative repertoire is the collection of ways individuals use language and literacy and other means of communication (gestures, dress, posture, or accessories) to function effectively in the multiple communities in which they participate. 28
Students are learning repertoires of school ; teachers are learning that students’ native repertoires are valuable (e.g. Lucas et al., 1990; Sheets, 1995). When students’ native communicative repertoires are recognized, they begin to see themselves as academically capable (i.e. capable of expanding their repertoire). …over the course of a year, participants in a classroom community will probably begin to take on aspects of one another’s repertoires. Sometimes, this involves ‘giving the teacher what she /he wants; at other times, it may involve giving in to ‘peer pressure’. No one is ‘giving in’ but both are gaining by occupying a third position in which collaboration across repertoires is possible. As Sonia Nieto (1999) writes, ‘accommodation’ must be bidirectional. Students accommodate to school routines and repertoires, but teachers accommodate to students’ repertoires as well. 29
“Communicative repertoire” rather than “language awareness of classroom discourse” by Betsy Rymes (From: The Education of English Language Learners: Research to practice (edited by Marilyn Shatz and Louise C. Wilkinson) Communicative repertoires Makoni and Pennycook (2007) claim that a good starting point to analyse classrooms is by considering “communicative repertoires”. “But how do we recognize distinct repertoires without demarking boundaries linguistically? We use locally defined boundaries as discerned in classroom talk. This can involve: Different kinds of words (e.g. in register) Different ways of speaking Gestures (e.g. fist bumps vs. pleased nod; sitting up straight vs. slouching) Turn-taking habits (e.g. hands raised vs. massively overlapping talk) Sometimes all the above repertoires will include multiple “languages” as well. 30
… as teachers we have to recognize the distinct communicative repertoires in our classrooms and to explore them. The goal of any language teacher is to augment everyone´s awareness of the communicative repertoires in play in one´s environment and how those repertoires can be deployed with facility and elegance – and to useful ends. A starting point in working to achieve this awareness is to have students document the characteristics of their own repertoires. 31
32 Start with the categories suggested in next slide. Add more as they emerge (and new categories inevitably will).
Doing classroom discourse analysis potentially develops new habits of meta-discursive reflection in teachers and students, habits that are critical in contemporary multilingual, ever-globalizing educational contexts. 33
THINK-PAIR-SHARE Think of one or some of your classes. What communicative repertoires can you identify? Do these repertoires enhance or hinder the development of the classes?
Let´s analyse unit 4 in the Cuaderno de Trabajo para 1º año de secundaria considering the topic of the unit and plurilingualism as well as translanguaging strategies.Cuaderno de Trabajo para 1º año de secundaria
Let´s discuss question 1 and 2. Work in small groups. Record the answer to questions 3 and 4 on a poster. Let´s discuss the answers to questions 5 and 6. 1.What languages are present in this unit? 2.What is the purpose of the text in Spanish on page 22? 3.How would you use this text with your class(es)? 4.How can you make the transition between this text in Spanish to the following text in English (interview)? 5.What scaffolding strategies can you use for task 4? 6.And for task 5? 36
Planning stage Let´s start completing the planning template based on Unit 4 in the Cuaderno de Trabajo para 1º año de secundariaplanning template
Let´s reflect: What have I learnt in this meeting? What have I found useful for my teaching? So now… please, write and share. 38
La planificación de secuencias didácticas desde un enfoque plurilingüe e intercultural Meeting 2 39
Second meeting 40 Outcomes By the end of this meeting, participants will have: Revised/learned about the components of intercultural communicative competence. Experienced some tasks that raise intercultural awareness. Completed the teaching sequence plan for part of Unit 4 in the Cuaderno de Trabajo de 1º año de secundaria. Reflected on the contents, materials and activities in this meeting.
Let´s revise!!! Plurilingualism is a term used to discuss situations in which a person has communicative abilities in more than one language. In contrast, a multilingual area might have multiple languages that are used, but individual speakers may still be monolingual. While a person may be said to be plurilingual, this distinction between the two terms makes the most sense when discussing locations and speaker communities. When speakers of different languages can communicate, they are often more likely to interact and form a strong society together. Linguistic divisions can be very powerful and can make people inclined to remain in highly isolated cultural groups even when living in close proximity. Encouraging linguistic exchange between different cultural groups can ease tense intercultural relations. The way in which plurilingual contexts develop varies, but usually involves contact between more than one culture. In some cases, however, bilingualism may be standard for an area and the bilingual community may have its own distinct culture. Linguistic competence is usually accompanied by cultural competence, because effective communication involves more than just words. This is sometimes called pluricultural competence. Many people believe that plurilingualism is increasing because of increased exposure to multiple languages both through school and societal changes. It is extremely common for people to have at least some degree of competency in foreign languages, and plurilingualism is increasingly the norm in societies. This reflects not only increased pluriculturalism, but also a willingness to accept multiple cultures as members of a nation. 41
What about language? Read a few extracts about codeswitching and translanguaging. How do you think theory applies to your teaching context/s? 42
Now think about the concepts discussed during the first meeting and advance a definition of interculturality and intercultural competence. 46
Intercultural competence Intercultural competence (IC) is the ability to interact effectively with people from cultures that we recognize as being different from our own. Cultures simultaneously share and differ in certain aspects, e.g. beliefs, habits, and values. … Handout
Intercultural competence Interacting effectively across cultures means accomplishing a negotiation between people based on both culture-specific and culture-general features that is on the whole respectful of and favourable to each. Paige and Steglitz (1998) provide a definition of “effectiveness” and “appropriateness” with respect to communication: ‘Communication is appropriate when it meets contextual and relational standards (you did it right given the context); effective when it achieves desired ends or goals or provides satisfaction of both communicators’ needs and concerns.’ (1998: 7 1-2). Handout
Intercultural competence According to Byram, IC is more complex than Communicative Competence, precisely because it focuses on ‘establishing and maintaining relationships’ instead of merely communicating messages or exchanging information (Byram, l997b: 3). Therefore, ‘adequacy and flexibility’ are, according to Meyer, abilities that should be developed among foreign language/ culture learners because they help them to be aware of differences and able to deal with them (Meyer, 1990: 137). Handout
Intercultural competence The difficulty in achieving a successful intercultural interaction does not necessarily correspond to the gap between cultural backgrounds. There are several factors involved, not all of them cultural: e.g. personality. The linguistic element is also most important for developing and achieving IC. An intercultural interaction is generally accomplished in one language that may be either native or foreign to all speakers or simultaneously native for some and foreign for others. Therefore, Byram distinguishes between ‘Intercultural Competence’ as the ‘ability to interact in their own language with people from another country and culture’ and ‘Intercultural Communicative Competence’ which means performance in a foreign language (1997 b: 70). Handout
A model of intercultural competence Attitudes and feelings Acknowledging the identities of others: noticing how others have different identities and accepting their values and insights. Respecting otherness: showing curiosity about others and being willing to question what is usually taken for granted and viewed as ‘normal’. Having empathy: being able to take someone else’s perspective, to imagine their thoughts and feelings. Identifying positive and negative emotions and relating them to attitudes and knowledge. Behaviour Being flexible: adapting one’s behaviour to new situations and to what other people expect. Being sensitive to ways of communicating: recognising different ways of speaking and other forms of communication that exist in other languages or other ways of using the same language. Knowledge and skills Having knowledge about other people: knowing facts about people whom one meets, and knowing how and why they are what they are. Discovering knowledge: using certain skills to find out about people one meets, by asking questions, seeking out information, and using these skills in real-time encounters. Interpreting and relating: understanding people or places or things by comparing them to familiar people, places, things in one’s own environment, seeing similarities and differences. Being critical: noticing how other people think and act and distancing oneself from one’s own ways of thinking and acting, and being able to explain one’s judgements about both. Becoming aware of one’s own assumptions, preconceptions, stereotypes and prejudices. Action Taking action: as a consequence of all the rest, being willing and able to become involved with other people in making things different and better.
Teaching intercultural competence The main target for the foreign language/culture learner/teacher is no longer to imitate a circumscribed and standardized model of a native speaker (Kramsch, 1993; Byram, 1997b; Byram and Zarate, 1997). Therefore, teachers need to discard their role as ambassadors of a foreign culture and the concept of a static, self-contained and strange culture. Instead, they must acknowledge the interactive nature and the social, political, and ethical implications of learning/teaching about culture. Handout
53 Components of intercultural framework. The goals of global education are divided into the four domains. Knowledge knowledge about world countries and cultures, and about global problems, their causes and solutions; Skills skills of critical thinking, cooperative problem solving, conflict resolution, and seeing issues from multiple perspective; Attitudes attitudes of global awareness, cultural appreciation, respect for diversity, and empathy; Action the final aim of global learning is to have students “think globally and act locally”
55 Now let´s analyze the components of intercultural competence/ understanding with Unit 4 in Cuaderno de Trabajo
Working with images This PPT was used in the distance course: “Los estudios interculturales en la clase de Inglés” You will find some hints for using photographs to develop critical thinking and intercultural understanding Activity ideas taken from Tide~ global learning – 56
Planning stage Let´s complete the planning template, focusing now in the intercultural boxes (knowledge, skills, attitudes) Let´s add tasks to develop intercultural competence 57
Let´s reflect on meeting 2: What have I learnt in this meeting? What have I found useful for my teaching? So now… please, write and share. 58