2History: Arab chieftain tale Antony van Leeuwenhook, Dutch inventor of the microscope, was the first person to observe sperm under magnification.In 1780, Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian physiologist, was the first to record the successful use of AI in his work with dogs and is considered the inventor of AI.
3Ivanoff of Russia pioneered AI research in birds, horses, cattle, and sheep in 1899. He was the first to successfully inseminate cattle artificially.AI was first used on a large scale by Russia to reestablish its livestock industry following World War I and Britain used it for the same purpose following World War II.
4Why AI? Increase Production Proves more sires Eliminates danger and expense of keeping bulls and total bulls neededHelps control diseaseProlongs service life of siresReduces injuryImproves management with better record keepingAllows crossbreeding to be used to a maxDecreases overall sire costs
5Why not AI? Human Detection of Heat Requires a skilled tech May be subject to abusesMay accentuate poor traits
6The head is of great importance because it contains the chromosomes (DNA).
7The neck is short and contains the anterior centromere. The body is approximately the same length as the head.The lashing of the tail causes the sperm to move.
8Although minor differences occur in their sizes, all spermatozoa are extremely small (much smaller than the egg cells, or ova).
13Massage of the Ampullae insert the hand into the rectum and massages the ampullae and accessory glands, causing semen to drip from the sheath.may be contaminated with urine and may contain too much accessory gland secretion for the number of sperm present.
14Semen recovery from the vagina the semen in the anterior vagina is aspirated into a syringe by means of a glass or rubber catheter introduced into the vaginaUsually mixed with female secretionsSpreads disease quickly
16Number of Sperm per Insemination Dilute semenSpeciesBull 1: cc15 millionStallion cc 250 millionBoar 1: cc 2 millionRam 1: cc 50 millionSemen Dilution RatioVolume of SemenNeeded per ServiceNumber of Sperm per InseminationVolume of Semen & Concentration Per Insemination
17AI equipment:Semen straw: holds the semen; has an end plugged with cotton and another sealed end
18Semen Tank Keeps semen frozen at -320 degrees F Canes: sit in canister and hold strawsCanister: holds canes
19Tweezers: used to extract semen straws out of canes and put in thaw box (need to be plastic) Thaw Box: fill with water and heat to 95 degrees FCito Straw Cutter: clips crimped the end of the straw
20Gun: holds the semen straw Spiret: used to screw into sow’s vagina to deposit semen
21Sheath: protective covering O-ring: holds sheath in placeSpeculum: opens up the vagina to locate the cervix
22Other equipment needed: Paper towelsGlovesKY jelly