2INTRODUCTIONIndia is a land of diversity. Each state of India has its exclusive lifestyle. The people from each state differ from each other in customs, rituals, attire, and most prominently in their systems of marriage.In this presentation we would like to project the different types of Indian Marriages, which include North Indian , South Indian, Bengali, Christian as well as Muslim marriages which are all unique in its own way.
3PUNJABI WEDDINGPunjabi Wedding traditions and ceremonies are traditionally conducted in Punjabi and are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. The Punjabi wedding has many rituals and ceremonies that have evolved since traditional times including many famousPunjabi dances.
4PRE WEDDING RITUALS Mangni The engagement or Mangni Sagai is usually very high profile.The girl’s side of the familygoes to the boy’s side with giftsto confirm the engagement.SagaiIn this ceremony, the girls family visitsThe boy’s with a few grains of rice andsaffron and gifts. In return, the girl’sfamily receives baskets of seven dryfruits. This function is sealed byexchange of rings.MehndiThe last function before wedding is mehndi, theMehndi sent by the mother-in-law is applied onThe hands and feet of the bride. the femaleFamily members also apply mehndi on their palms.Dholki or SangeetThis function is hosted by the bride’s family wheregirls play dholki and sing traditional songs.
5RITUALS AT BRIDE’S HOME - WEDDING RITUALSRITUALS AT BRIDE’S HOME -HaldiIn this ritual, turmeric paste and mustardoil is applied all over the girl’s body byfemale friends and relatives. This is done tomake the girl look more beautiful on thespecial day of her life. After this ritual, thebride and the groom are not allowed to meettill the wedding.ChuraChura ceremony is the first ritual inthe bride’s house on the wedding day. Chura isa set of red and cream ivory bangles. People touch theChura and give their heartiest wishes for the bride’sMarried life after which the girls family tie silver andGold ornaments to the chura worn by the girl.Rut JuggaIn this ceremony, the family dancer and sing in the beautifullydecorated wedding room. They decorate copper or brass vessel called“gagger” and fill them with mustard oil and light them. The bride orBridegroom’s maternal aunt carries it on her head.
6RITUALS AT GROOM’S HOUSE - SehrabandiIn this ritual, the groom’s sister ties the sehra onthe groom’s head. After the completion of thisceremony, people give gifts and money to theGroom as a token of good luck.SarbalaA young nephew also dons a similar attireLike the groom. He is called the sarbala orCaretaker of the groom and accompanies him.Ghodi CharanaIn this ceremony, the groom climbs on the horse and leaves for theWedding venue.
7MilniPhereThis takes place in front of the sacred fire.MangalsutraThe groom ties this in thebride’s neck.Sindoor DaanIn this ritual, groom applies sindoor to the girl’s hair partition.VidaaiVidaai is the departure of the bridefrom her parents’ house.
9IntroductionThe people of the state of West Bengal in India are called Bengalis. A Bengali wedding includes many rituals and ceremonies that spans for several days and are celebrated in great pomp and grandeur. In most, it starts with an Aiburo bhat and ends with Ostomongola (returning of newly wed daughter to her parent’s house 8 days after the marriage) ceremony. The following slides present a brief description of the Bengali Wedding.Previously a bride was carried to the place ofMarriage in a palanquin.
10Rituals of Bengali Marriage On the marriage day:Dodhi Mongol: Before sunrise of the marriage day, both the bride and groom are fed a mixture of sweets, card and khoi because they would be fasting for the rest of the day until marriage After this, the women relatives of both families visit their nearby water bodies, preferably Ganga( the holiest river of India) to fetch water for the rituals and to invite Goddess Ganga to the wedding and also to be the witness of the marriage.Gaye Holud: There is one Turmeric Ceremony for both bride and groom. For the bride’s gaye holud, the groom’s family- except the groom himself go in procession to the bride’s home. They carry with them the bride’s outfit, wedding decoration including turmeric paste that had been touched by the groom sweets and gifts along with a large Rohu fish. After the turmeric ceremony the bride and the groom are bathed by water.Turmeric Ceremony(gaye holud)
11Rituals (continued)The Wedding Ceremony: It follows the gaye holud. It is arranged by the bride’s family and the groom with his family and friends arrive late in the evening.The wedding starts with purohits(conductors of the marriage) chanting Sanskrit mantras along with the bride’s father. While the groom attend the ceremonies from the beginning, the bride joins in much later all dressed up in beautiful sari and jewelleries after she is brought by her brothers and friends seated on a wooden seat(piri). Then, the bride and groom exchange garlands. After which the bride’s father bestows all the responsibilities of the bride to the groom who will be her guardian from then. Finally occurs the sindoor dan where the bride’s forehead turns red by the sindoor (a red powder) given by the groom. It is only after then they are socially accepted as married.These ceremonies are followed by great feast where several famous Bengali dishes are served to the guests. After all this, the couple sits side-byside and cannot open the knot by which they are tied together and they are entertained by many dances and songs performed by their family members especially the younger ones.Sindoor daan
12This is the ceremony that takes place on next Day evening when the bride leaves for the groom’s house.Bashi BiyeOn reaching the groom’s house, the couple iswelcomed by the groom’s mother and otherfamily members, a ritual known as “Bouboron’.The bride is then asked to enter the house withher feet dipped in alta and her footprints areregarded as those of Laxmi.
13Bashi Biye is followed by Bou Bhat. In her new home, the bride serves gheeand bhat to all her in-laws at lunch.Bou BhatReceptionThe evening of Bou Bhat is celebrated as a reception party whereall the distant relatives of the groom along with the close ones areintroduced to the bride. The bride’s family members also known as“Kanyayatris” bring gifts of clothes, jewelleries, sweets and otheressentials for bride and her in-laws which is known as “tatwo”.Phool SojjaThis is the flower bed ceremony where the bride wearsa lot of flower ornament presented by her family andtheir marriage bed is decorated with flowers by thegroom’s family.
14Images of Bengali Marriages Suvo drishtiMaking of pairExchange of garlandsFoods served in the ceremonyA marriage ritualA bride
15South Indian Marriages The “South Indian states” are referred to the four states of India that lie extreme to the south of the country. These four states are – Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.The rituals and customs of the south Indian marriages are quite different from that of the rest of India. But, it is to be mentioned that most of the Indian population comprises of Hindus and being a part of the Hindu community, the South Indian wedding rituals are very much similar to the other Hindu marriages.
17Rituals of South Indian Marriages The Hindu wedding has a number of rituals and customs. They are symbolic of beautiful and noble sentiments. Here is a short description of the South Indian wedding.EVENING PRIOR TO THE WEDDINDG DAY(Welcoming of bridegroom)This day the bridegroom is to be brought in a procession from a temple in a flower decorated car. He is escorted by the bride’s parents. This is a social function called JANA VASAM.The next day, the marriage starts by paying homage to Lord Ganesh followed by a number of rituals including, exchange of garlands between bride and bridegroom, making promises together and taking blessings from the elders to start a new life.The celebration continues for the whole day where the bridegroom’s family organize a great lunch for the invitees. The new couple also joins in and engage themselves in dancing and singing with the other family members.
18Images of South Indian Wedding Bride and bridegroom takingPart in the rituals.Makeover of a brideUshering of the bridegroomby the bride.A typical South IndianWedding dish.
19MUSLIM WEDDING CEREMONY Muslim Marriage and Islam Wedding also known as Nikah inIslamic language customs are traditions and practices that relate towedding ceremonies and marriage rituals prevailing with theMuslim world. Participants in this rites belong to communitiesof people who have Islam as their faith. According to the teachingsof Quran , the sacred Muslim religious According to the teachingsa married Muslim couple is equated with clothing. Bothhusband and wife are each others protector and comforter just asreal garments “show and conceal” the body of human beings. InIslam, Polygamy is allowed with certain restrictions , but Polyandryis totally restricted. Majority of Muslims practice Monogamy.
20RITUALS OF NIKAH Pre wedding ritual – Engagement Haldi In this ritual , the bride and thegroom exchange rings.HaldiDuring this ritual , turmeric paste is applied on the bride’s skin with the purpose of improving and brightening her complexion.RITUALSOFNIKAHMehndi RitualIn this ritual , mehndi is applied onthe bride’s hand and feet by a mehndiwali, female relative of the bride.BaraatThe Islamic wedding ceremonyIs also preceded by a marriageProcession known as theGroom’s baraat.
21The actual Wedding ceremony or Nikah The Nikah is officiated by a priest called Qazi.Among the important participants of the Nikahare the Walises or the fathers of the bride andgroom and their legal representatives.NikaahnamaThis is the marriage contract which issigned by the couple as well as theWalises and the Qazi.ValimaThis is the wedding Receptionhosted by the groom’s family.Reading of Quran by the newly wedcouple
22Christian Wedding in India Indian Christians are governed by Indian Christian Marriage Act. The legal processes included in an Christian wedding in India are :The procedure begins with one of the parties giving written notice to the Minister of Religion, stating intention to marry, full name, address band profession of both parties, and Church in which they want to marry.Following this, a notice is put up in a conspicious part of the Church for at least 4 days.A declaration is then made by one of the parties stating that there is no lawful reason why the marriage cannot go ahead along with consent from bride’s guardian.A certificate is issued by the Minister and marriage may be conducted.
23Procedure of the wedding The bride is dressed in beautiful gown and the bridegroom in dashing suit and both of them enter the churchyard together.The would – be couple seek blessings from Jesus and from the Father and promise to be with each other by uttering the phrases, ‘Yes, I do’ and ‘Yes, I always’.They exchange rings and the marriage is accomplished.The newly wed couple accept each other by a kiss.Then they come out of the Church followed by a long procession and the wedding is celebrated by a grand feast which marks the end of the occasion.
24Images of Christian Marriages Prepared to start a new lifeExchange of ringsA bridal gown