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Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 7 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Stress.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 7 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Stress."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 7 Organizational Behavior Nelson & Quick, 6 th edition Stress and Well-Being At Work

2 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved What is Stress? Stress - Stress - the unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand Stressor - Stressor - the person or event that triggers the stress response Distress - Distress - the adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequences that may arise as a result of stressful events Strain – Strain – distress

3 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved What is Homeostasis? Homeostasis – Homeostasis – a steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

4 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved 4 Stress Approaches: Homeostatic/Medical Approach Homeostasis External environmental demand += Fight Flight Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

5 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Individuals differ in their appraisal of events & people What is stressful for one person is not for another Perception and cognitive appraisal determines what is stressful 4 Stress Approaches: Cognitive Appraisal Approach

6 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved 4 Stress Approaches: Cognitive Appraisal Approach Problem-focused coping emphasizes managing the stressor Emotion-focused coping emphasizes managing your response Coping with Stress Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

7 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved No undue stress Good person-environment fit: a person’s skills & abilities match a clearly defined, consistent set of role expectations Stress, strain, and depression occur when –Role expectations are confusing and/or conflicting –Person’s skills & abilities do not meet the demands of the social role 4 Stress Approaches: Person-Environment Fit Approach

8 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved 4 Stress Approaches: Psychoanalytic Approach = the difference between ego ideal and self-image Self-Image - Self-Image - how a person sees oneself, both positively & negatively Ego Ideal - Ego Ideal - the embodiment of a person’s perfect self !? Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

9 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved The Stress Response Blood redirected from the skin & internal organs to brain and large muscles Increased alertness: improved vision, hearing, & other sensory responses Release of glucose & fatty acids for sustenance Depression of immune system, digestion, & similar restorative processes Release of chemical messengers, primarily adrenaline, into the bloodstream Sympathetic nervous system & the endocrine (hormone) system activated

10 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Sources of Stress at Work

11 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Stress Sources at Work Workaholism – Workaholism – an imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction

12 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Stress Benefits and Costs

13 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Yerkes-Dodson Law Performance arousal High Low (distress) Optimum (eustress) High (distress) Stress level Boredom from understimulation Optimum stress load Conditions perceived as stressful Distress from overstimulation

14 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Positive Stress Stress response itself is neutral Some stressful activities (aerobic exercise, etc.) can provide an energy boost to enhance a person’s ability to manage stressful demands or situations Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

15 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Negative Stress Negative stress results from –a prolonged activation of the stress response –mismanagement of the energy induced by the response –unique personal vulnerabilities Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

16 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Work-related psychological disorders (depression, burnout, psychosomatic disorders) Medical illness (heart disease, strokes, headaches, backaches) Behavioral problems (substance abuse, violence, accidents) Individual Distress

17 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Organizational Distress Participative Problems - Participative Problems - a cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes & work stoppages, & turnover Performance Decrement - Performance Decrement - a cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, & unscheduled machine downtime & repair Compensation Award - Compensation Award - an organizational cost resulting from court awards for job distress

18 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Dealing with Stress – Achilles’ heel phenomenon – a person breaks down at his or her weakest point Backaches Headaches Heart Disease Depression Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

19 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Are There Gender-Related Stressors? Sexual harassment Early age fatal health problems Long term disabling health problems Violence Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

20 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Type A Behavior Patterns Type A Behavior Patterns - Type A Behavior Patterns - a complex of personality and behavior characteristics –Competitiveness –Time urgency –Social status insecurity –Aggression –Hostility –Quest for achievements Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

21 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Personality Hardiness Personality Hardiness - Personality Hardiness - a personality resistant to distress & characterized by –commitment (versus alienation) –control (versus powerlessness) –challenge (versus threat) Transformational Coping - regressive coping - Transformational Coping - a way of managing stressful events by changing them into subjectively less stressful events (versus regressive coping - passive avoidance of events by decreasing interaction with the environment)

22 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Self-Reliance Self-Reliance - Self-Reliance - a healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others Counterdependence - Counterdependence - an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people Overdependence - Overdependence - an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships

23 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Preventative Stress Management - Preventative Stress Management - an organizational philosophy that holds that people & organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress & strain Preventative Stress Management Photos courtesy of Clips Online ©2008 Microsoft Corporation

24 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Primary Prevention - Primary Prevention - designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress Secondary Prevention - Secondary Prevention - designed to alter or modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand or stressor Tertiary Prevention - Tertiary Prevention - designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress & strain Stages in Preventative Stress Management

25 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Distress Individual problems Behavioral Medical Psychological Organizational costs Direct Indirect Symptomatic disease Tertiary Prevention: symptom directed Preventative Stress Maintenance Stress responses Individual Organizational Asymptomatic disease Secondary Prevention: response directed Organizational stressors Task demands Role demands Physical demands Interpersonal demands Health risk factors Primary Prevention: stressor directed SOURCE: Based on J. D. Quick, J. C. Quick, and D.L. Nelson. “The Theory of Preventive Stress Management in Organizations,” in C. L. Cooper, ed. Theories of Organizational Stress (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 1998), Organizational ContextPreventive Medicine Context

26 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Organizational Stress Prevention Primary prevention –Job redesign –Goal setting –Role negotiation –Career management Secondary Prevention –Team building –Social support at work

27 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Job Strain Model Unresolved strain (ill health) Workload Low High Self- determination Low High Active job SOURCE: B. Gardell, “Efficiency and Health Hazards in Mechanized Work,” in J. C. Quick, R.S. Bhagat, J. E. Dalton, and J. D. Quick, eds., Work Stress: Health Care Systems in the Workplace. Copyright © Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. Passive job High-strain job Low-strain job

28 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Social Support at Work & Home Individual Organizational Supervisor Colleagues Subordinates Clients Family Spouse Children Parents In-laws Church/ Synagogue/Mosque Minister/Rabbi/Priest Friends Support groups Clubs Business Social Athletic Professional Physicians Psychologists Counselors Lawyers SOURCE: From J. C. Quick J. D. Quick, D. L. Nelson and J. J. Hurrell, Jr., in Preventive Stress Management in Organizations, 1997, p Copyright© 1997 by The American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.

29 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Individual Preventive Stress Management

30 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved What Can Managers Do? Learn how to create healthy stress without distress Help employees adjust to new technologies Be sensitive to early signs of distress Be aware of gender, personality, and behavioral differences Use principles and methods of preventive stress management

31 Copyright ©2009 South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning All rights reserved Chapter 7: Reflect & Discuss Meet the Parents Video Clip What to Watch for and Ask Yourself Does Greg experience the stress response during this scene? What evidence appears in the scene? Does he experience distress or eustress? Why does Greg respond so harshly to the simple request to check his bag?


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