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The Problem of Normalisation 1 ‘The common feature of otherwise… dissimilar schools appears to be their belief that it is the function of schools to normalise.

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Presentation on theme: "The Problem of Normalisation 1 ‘The common feature of otherwise… dissimilar schools appears to be their belief that it is the function of schools to normalise."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Problem of Normalisation 1 ‘The common feature of otherwise… dissimilar schools appears to be their belief that it is the function of schools to normalise their pupils – to adapt them to the median achievements of their peer group or to what the school regards as normal…rather than to respect, cater for and indeed celebrate the differing talents of the children.’ Simpson, M. (1989)

3 The Problem of Normalisation 2 ‘If Jesus Christ or Mozart had attended (your) school, they would have been expelled. Mozart would have been expelled for being ‘different’ while Jesus would have had a ‘general attitude’ problem…Are (schools) the breeders of mediocrity and conformity, that insidious cosiness hostile to those who are special?....How can we have equality and not lapse into conformity?’ Susskind, A. (1989)

4 Aims

5 OFSTED 2008 The most effective new and recently trained teachers seen had a firm grounding in the pedagogy relating to learning difficulties and/or disabilities. As well as meeting all the necessary standards, they: were skilled communicators enjoyed the responsibility for ensuring that all pupils made good progress had a good understanding of what led to good learning, and adapted their teaching in the light of this to ensure that all pupils, including those with learning difficulties and/or disabilities, made good progress academically, personally and socially

6 OFSTED 2008 had very effective strategies for establishing clear classroom rules, based on respect for all pupils and high expectations of effort and achievement understood the need to teach new concepts well and made sure that pupils with learning difficulties and/or disabilities received high-quality teaching at key times during a sequence of lessons monitored the effectiveness of other adults’ work to ensure that their classroom organisation helped all pupils to make good progress provided a range of opportunities to enable pupils with learning difficulties and/or disabilities to take greater responsibility for their own learning (OFSTED, 2008: 8) research/Education/Inclusion/How-well-new-teachers-are-prepared-to- teach-pupils-with-learning-difficulties-and-or-disabilities

7 Relax

8 What do we know? Do pupils with learning difficulties need teaching strategies that are different from those used with other pupils? –‘evidence suggests that teaching approaches which differ along a continuum are needed, particularly for children with more severe learning difficulties, but that this difference is of degree not kind’ (Lewis and Norwich, 2001: 1) Do pupils who are gifted and talented/physically disabled/’whatever other label you might give’ need teaching strategies that are different from those used with other pupils? –evidence suggests difference is always one of degree not kind?

9 Vocabulary to memorise une bergeronnettewagtail un brochetpike un chêneoak un cormoran huppéshag un frêneash un hêtrebeech une merluchehake une truitetrout un verdiergreen finch

10 Test your self! Write down the French and English for as many as possible from the list in 60 seconds.

11 Strategies Repeat over and over again Look for similarities Word association Written support Cover one half, learn the other Word groups Invent a story Set to music/rhythm/rhyme Imagine pictures as mnemonics Give up Other….

12 VAK Auditory 34% Kinesthetic 37% Visual 29% You’re making this up!

13 Right/left Brain LEFT (Analytical) emphasises: Verbal Logic Sequencing Parts to whole Structure Words/numbers Evaluating Writing Reading mathematics RIGHT (Global) emphasises: Non-verbal Intuition Patterns Whole to parts Holistic Visualisation Symbolising Music Art Rhyme and rhythm

14 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Body Physical Linguistic Mathematical Logical Visual Spatial Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic

15 The Brain and Learning The brain stem (reptilian brain) Monitors motor functions and survival behaviours. Takes responsibility under conditions of ‘threat’. ‘survival’ behaviours restrict high-order thinking.

16 The Brain and Learning The Limbic System Deals with emotions Is responsible for our memory Is responsible for our biorhythms

17 The Brain and Learning The Neocortex Responsible for:- Cognition Reasoning Language Higher intelligence


19 Two sided affair! Processes information simultaneously, both hemispheres involved. Is asymmetrical. Left processes information sequentially. Right processes information randomly. Both sides are used when solving problems. Corpus Calossum relays information between the two hemispheres.

20 Retaining the information! We have 10 billion neurons 1000 trillion connections Combination of connections = 10 1 000 000 As we use our brain we strengthen those connections

21 Pupil differences Chronological age Development age Intellectual ability (numerical, language, practical, motor skills etc) Social class Gender Cultural origin Parental attitude Past experiences (e.g. primary school) Hobbies and interests Personality/attitude

22 Inspection outcomes ‘In the best lessons seen pupils had an opportunity to share learning with their peers and the teacher and these lessons were characterised by pupils generating questions as well as answers, working in groups and discussion used as a vehicle for learning’ ‘Where lessons were satisfactory or better…lessons contain a range of taks which motivate and challenge pupils’ thinking. Here independent active learning is encouraged and staff offer appropriate help and support and stimulate pupils to think for themselves’ ‘(assessment)…is supportive and diagnostic and targets are set’

23 Differentiation and behaviour ‘We point out the links between the content and methods of delivery of the school’s curriculum, and the motivation and behaviour of pupils, particularly those who are not successful academically…[they require] stimulating and suitably differentiated programmes of study’ ( Elton Report (1989), page 13 paragraph 13)

24 Differentiation ‘Differentiation is the process whereby teachers meet the need for progress through the curriculum by selecting appropriate teaching methods to match an individual child’s learning strategies, within a group situation’ (Visser, 1993)

25 Types of differentiation D OutcomeTextSupportProcess Learning Style AbilityInterestsTask

26 A model for differentiation ResourceContentOutcome Support ResponseTask

27 Differentiation and Inclusion support Lots out there! Examples: –Teacher training resource bank for SEN: –TDA: e.g. [NQT in action] or[NQT in action] –Centre for studies on Inclusive Education:

28 Six stage model of learning 1.Right frame of mind 2.Getting the facts 3.Exploration 4.Memorising 5.Show you know 6.Evaluation of Learning (Chapman, Hamer and Sears, 2000)

29 Creating the atmosphere Physical environment Music Peripherals Teacher Positive atmosphere Art and Drama

30 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Understanding and knowledge Self-actualisation Self-esteem Love and belonging Safety Physiological

31 Good luck! The Ofsted inspectors noted the effect on a beginning teacher who had misunderstood differentiation expectations

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