Presentation on theme: "Treaties 8 and 11 Treaty 8 and Treaty 11 are very much living documents. They provide the basis for continuing relations between Aboriginal people of the."— Presentation transcript:
Treaties 8 and 11 Treaty 8 and Treaty 11 are very much living documents. They provide the basis for continuing relations between Aboriginal people of the NWT and the rest of Canada.
What do you think? Take a look at the following images. What comes to mind for each of these images? They all have something to do with Treaties 8 and 11.
Chief Monfwi who signed Treaty 11 on behalf of the Dogrib people in The area outlined by Treaty 8. At the time of the early Treaties, Canada was still considered a colony controlled by the British Crown. The ‘Union Jack’ – the British flag used during the signing of the Treaties. The original text of Treaty 11 – Lands which are under Treaty 11.
Remember: “Events of the past take on different shapes when they are viewed in the context of current happenings. AND...Events of the present take on different shapes when they are viewed in the context of the past!” Compare the facts – be aware of perspectives. There are always 3 points of view – yours, mine and what actually happened! 5
Looking back... 6 Clip A James Lawrence, Negotiator for GNWT 3.0 min
NUMBER TREATIES The first major treaties to be signed in Canada were completed 150 years ago. Between 1871 and 1930, treaties covering Ontario, the Prairie Provinces, north eastern BC and the Mackenzie Valley were signed. These treaties were known as the Number Treaties. 7 Clip B The Numbered Treaties CBC Radio Ideas min Clip A CBC Radio show – “Ehtsula”...3:09 min
Number Treaties (1867 to 1923) In 1867, the British North American Act (now the Constitution Act, 1867) gave jurisdiction over the "Indians and Land reserved for Indians" to the Government of Canada. In the years following Confederation, the federal government undertook a process of clearing aboriginal title to facilitate the construction of a railroad to the west coast, and the expansion and consolidation of Canada through settlement. In the resulting "number treaties", the Indians surrendered all title to the lands covered, and in return, received tracts of land for reserves. In addition to the provision of reserve lands, benefits common to many of the western treaties, also included were annuities, gratuities, schools, hunting and fishing rights, gifts of agricultural implements and cattle, annual cash payments for ammunition and twine, and clothing, flags, and medals. 8
Map of Number Treaties 9
Treaty 8 – In 1899, Chief Pierre Squirrel signed the treaty on behalf of the Chipewyan people of the Ft. Smith, Hay R., Ft. Resolution area. Clip A “Honour of the Crown” 6:00 min. Clip B “Honour of the Crown” 2:00 min.
(from the book, ‘Denendeh’ p. 17) “In 1920, when oil was discovered near the Dene village of Tulit'a (Fort Norman), the Canadian government became interested in the Dehcho Valley. Treaty Commissioner Henry A. Conroy was sent to negotiate Indian Treaty Number 11 with the Dene, but at the same time, he had been ordered not to change any word in the text of the treaty which he brought prepared from Ottawa...” 11
“Eventually, a treaty was signed with the Slavey, Dogrib, Loucheux, Hare and other Indian inhabitants of the territory.” 12 Clip A Francois Paulette from “Honour of the Crown” 1:21 min.
All Dene groups in the NWT signed either Treaty 8 or 11. Treaty 11 was signed in Clip A Rene Fumoleau 1.50 min
Treaty 11, 1921 Chief Môwhì signed Treaty 11 with the Government of Canada on August 22, 1921, on behalf of all the Dogrib of the North Slave. The Treaty promised to give them annual payments and services, like medical care, education and old age care. In exchange, Canada would get title to the land, and would be free to allow gas and mineral exploration throughout the Mackenzie Valley. 14 Clip A Jimmy B. Rabesca 2.00 min
Treaty 11 was negotiated during the summer of During the negotiations, many concerns were raised, but Canada assured the people that they would not lose their right to hunt, fish and trap. 15 Clip A John B. Zoe min
Terms of Treaties 8 and 11 The main features, according to the texts, are: the purpose was to establish "peace and goodwill" between the Dene and the Crown's other subjects; the Dene are stated as giving up their rights to their lands to the Crown; the Crown guaranteed the right to hunt, trap and fish throughout the Treaty area, subject to regulation, except in those areas taken up for settlement, mining, timber cutting, etc; reserves were to be set aside on the formula of one square mile (2.59 square kilometres) per family of five; a cash payment of $32 for Chiefs, $22 for Headmen, and $12 for all others, following signing; annual Treaty payments of $25 for Chiefs, $15 for Headmen and $5 for all others; the Crown was to pay the salaries of teachers to instruct the Dene; agricultural assistance and/or fishing and hunting equipment was to be provided; the Dene promised to act as "good and loyal subjects of Her Majesty", to obey the law and to maintain peace with other subjects of the Crown. 16
People, Problems and Perspectives What were the issues, challenges in the signing of the Treaties? Different languages Different cultures/worldviews Interpreters Was there any ‘negotiation’ of the Treaties? 17 Clip A Rene Fumoleau min Clip B Jimmy B. Rabesca min Clip D Rene Fumoleau min Clip C Rene Fumoleau min
What happened after the signing of the Treaties? After oil was discovered in Norman Wells, and Treaty 11 had been signed, it wasn’t long before more people from ‘the south’ began coming north. Some to trap, some to work in the oil fields, some to prospect etc. Interactions between native people and non-native people increased. 18 Clip A Rene Fumoleau min
2 Points of View The purpose of the treaties, in Aboriginal eyes, was to work out ways of sharing lands and resources with settlers, without any loss of their own independence. But the representatives of the Crown had come to see the treaties merely as a tool for clearing Aboriginal people off desirable land. To induce First Nations to sign, colonial negotiators continued to assure them that treaty provisions were not simply agreed, but guaranteed to them - for as long as the sun shone and the rivers flowed. 19
The Aboriginal view of the treaties was very different. They believed what the king's men told them, that the marks scratched on parchment captured the essence of their talks. They were angered and dismayed to discover later that what had been pledged in words, leader to leader, was not recorded accurately. They accepted the monarch, but only as a kind of kin figure, a distant 'protector' who could be called on to safeguard their interests and enforce treaty agreements. They had no notion of giving up their land, a concept foreign to Aboriginal cultures. “In my language, there is no word for 'surrender'. There is no word. I cannot describe 'surrender' to you in my language, so how do you expect my people to [have] put their X on 'surrender'?” Chief Francois Paulette Treaty 8 Tribal Council Yellowknife, Northwest Territories 20
What was the result of the 2 opposing views of the treaties? Members of the Treaty Commission assured the Dene that they would not lose their right to hunt, fish or trap and that they would not be confined to reserves. It has long been felt that all the promises made during these treaty negotiations have not been kept. This dissatisfaction led, in part, to the present day land claim process. These basic differences became the basis for 50 years of disagreement between the Dene and the Canadian Government. This has led to the comprehensive land claim negotiations. For example, The Tåîchô Agreement had to be negotiated in a way that outlined Tåîchô rights very clearly. 21
Let’s review 1. Treaties 1 – 11 are known as ‘______________________’. 2. The Government of Canada was trying to establish control over _____________ and land with the signing of Number Treaties. 3. Under the treaties, the Aboriginals surrendered all title to _____, in exchange for _______________________________ __________________________________________________. 4. What word is defined this way? A formal agreement between 2 parties or states. ___________________ Use these words: treaty land Number Treaties resources health care, education, ammunition, $5, the right to hunt and trap
Perspectives Using this video/audio clip, be prepared to discuss the following statements/questions: 1.“Treaty 8 didn’t help or protect the Dene” – discuss. 2.Why was farming introduced in Ft. Simpson in the early 1900’s? 3.Discuss the struggle the Dene experienced at this time. 4.What were the advantages/disadvantages of the changes being experienced in the early 1900’s? 5.What was the Dene perspective of ‘land’? What was the Government’s perspective of ‘land’? How did these differ? Has this changed today? Discuss. Clip A “Fighting for Our Land”...6:30 min.