# Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 The Behavior of Gases Properties of Gases The Gas Laws Ideal Gases Gases: Mixtures and Movements.

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Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 The Behavior of Gases Properties of Gases The Gas Laws Ideal Gases Gases: Mixtures and Movements

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Properties of Gases Objectives: 1.E xplain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are. 2.D escribe the three factors that affect gas pressure.

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Compressibility a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressurea measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure gases compress more easily because of the space between the particlesgases compress more easily because of the space between the particles Factors Affecting Gas PressureFactors Affecting Gas Pressure amount of gasamount of gas volumevolume temperaturetemperature

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Amount of Gas and Gas Pressure Amount of Gas – more particles in a fixed area more collisions more pressureAmount of Gas – more particles in a fixed area more collisions more pressure

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Volume and Gas Pressure Volume – more a gas is compressed the greater the pressure exerted on the containerVolume – more a gas is compressed the greater the pressure exerted on the container

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Temperature and Gas Pressure Temperature – heating the gas increases kinetic energy, increasing collisions, increasing pressureTemperature – heating the gas increases kinetic energy, increasing collisions, increasing pressure

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 The Gas Laws Objectives: 1.D escribe the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas 2.U se the combined gas law to solve problems.

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Boyle’s Law If temperature is constant, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with pressureIf temperature is constant, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with pressure when pressure  then volume when pressure  then volume  when pressure  then volume when pressure  then volume 

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Using Boyle’s Law

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Charles’s Law As the temperature (in Kelvin) of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant.As the temperature (in Kelvin) of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant.

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Using Charles’s Law

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Gay-Lussac’s Law As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constantAs the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constant

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 The Combined Gas Law allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant.allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant. Combines Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Gay- Lussac’s lawsCombines Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Gay- Lussac’s laws

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Ideal Gases Objectives: 1.C ompute the value of an unknown using the ideal gas law 2.C ompare and contrast real and ideal gases.

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Ideal Gas Law includes all four variables (pressure, volume, temperature, moles) and allows you to calculate the number of moles in a gas law problemincludes all four variables (pressure, volume, temperature, moles) and allows you to calculate the number of moles in a gas law problem n = # of molesn = # of moles R = ideal gas constant = 8.31 (LkPa)/(Kmol)R = ideal gas constant = 8.31 (LkPa)/(Kmol)

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Ideal Gas follows the gas laws at all conditions of pressure and temperaturefollows the gas laws at all conditions of pressure and temperature real gases differ most from ideal gases at low temperatures and high pressuresreal gases differ most from ideal gases at low temperatures and high pressures

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Gases: Mixtures and Movements Objectives: 1.R elate the total pressure of a mixture of gases to the partial pressures of the component gases 2.E xplain how the molar mass of a gas affects the rate at which the gas diffuses and effuses.

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Dalton’s Law In a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gasesIn a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases

Updated May 2007Created by C. Ippolito May 2007 Graham’s Law Diffusion – molecules move from area of high concentration to an area of low concentrationDiffusion – molecules move from area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Effusion – gases can escape from container through a small holeEffusion – gases can escape from container through a small hole Gases of lower molar masses diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar massGases of lower molar masses diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass

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