Presentation on theme: "Research helps us understand variables and the relationships that exist among them. Variables are sets of data that differ from one individual, object,"— Presentation transcript:
Research helps us understand variables and the relationships that exist among them. Variables are sets of data that differ from one individual, object, or procedure to another. A trait that does not differ from individual to individual is called a constant. Types of variables: 1. Continuous Show gradational differences Individuals possess more or less of the same trait, which varies in small increments along a continuum
2. Discrete Categorical in nature Individuals may be classified into one of several categories. 3. Dichotomous Special cases of discrete variables where there are only two possible categories. 4. Independent and Dependent The independent variable precedes in time and exerts influence on the dependent variable, which may change when influenced by the independent variable.
5. Confounding Traits or conditions, whose presence may or may not be recognized by the researcher, that may taint research outcomes. Types of confounding variables: a. intervening innate traits of participants b. organismic relatively permanent physical traits that cannot be changed easily c. extraneous Must be controlled if research results are to be valid. temporary conditions in nature
General Sources of Research Data 1. Primary sources firsthand information more accurate 2.Secondary sources provide reports or interpretations of primary data made by people who did n directly experience the events under consideration valuable and highly accurate but subject to errors of interpretation, emphasis, memory, and personal bias less reliable than primary sources.
3. Review of Literature Reports of previous investigations related to the matter under consideration Uses: a. to orient, guide, and define the limits of study b. as secondary data possibly useful in the topic under investigations c. as primary data in what are called meta- analytical studies, which analyze numerous existing studies to draw new conclusions.
Specific Sources of Research Data 1. Participants individuals from whom data are obtained comprise a sample, which is a group of individuals one hopes represents the population at large 2. Procedures formalized ways of operating in the management setting – the way things are done.
3. Settings specific environments within which behavior occurs 4. Objects inanimate things such as books, supplies, materials and artifacts. 5. Records highly summarized reports of performance, expenditures, and the like, kept for later reference.
6. Documents written papers and reports in their entirety 7. Informants people, other than participants in the study, from whom opinion, informed views, and expert testimony are obtained Qualities Required in Research Data Authenticity and Believability
Assessed by means of: a. External Criticism determining whether the data come from legitimate sources b. Internal Criticism has to do with data accuracy and lack of bias Authenticity and Believability Validity and Reliability Data are valid to the extent they depict or deal directly with the topic under consideration. Data are reliable to the extent they are consistent.