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Pesticide Groups So what is a pesticide?. Pesticide Groups Insecticides – kills insects Herbicides – kills weeds Fungicides – kills fungi Rodenticides.

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Presentation on theme: "Pesticide Groups So what is a pesticide?. Pesticide Groups Insecticides – kills insects Herbicides – kills weeds Fungicides – kills fungi Rodenticides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pesticide Groups So what is a pesticide?

2 Pesticide Groups Insecticides – kills insects Herbicides – kills weeds Fungicides – kills fungi Rodenticides – kills rodents Bactericide – kills bacteria Molluscicide – kills snails and slugs Nematicide – kills nematodes

3 Pesticide Groups Avicide – kills birds Ovicide – kills eggs Acaricide/miticide – kills mites Termiticide – kills termites Piscicide – kills fish Repellants – repels or discourages pests Attractants – attracts pests Hormones – plant growth regulators & juvenile growth regulators

4 Insecticides Used to kill insect pests Enters insect as contact, stomach or systemic poisons Physical toxicants Protoplasmic poisons Neural poisons Cytolytic poisons Muscle poisons

5 Herbicides Used to kill weed pests Physical toxicants Auxin-like effects Metabolic inhibitors Photosynthesis inhibitors

6 Rodenticides Used to kill rodent pests Anticoagulants Benzenamines – affects liver and kidneys Botanicals – derivatives of plants

7 Rodenticides

8 Fungicides Used to control fungal pathogens Electron transport chain inhibitors Enzyme inhibitors Nucleic acid metabolism inhibitors Protein synthesis inhibitors Sterol synthesis inhibitors The Killer Fungus

9 Repellants Intended to repel pests Chemical repellants Efficacy varies Pest specific Can also include various devices

10 Attractants Intended to attract pests Usually used for trapping Pheromones, baits, other chemicals

11 Variations on a Theme Pesticides can be: synthetically produced organic chemicals naturally occurring organic chemicals naturally occurring inorganic chemicals microbial agents

12 Variations on a Theme Some chemicals not commonly thought of as pesticides: chlorine – added to swimming pools kills algae household disinfectants insect repellants plant growth regulators

13 A Few Words About Toxicity

14 Toxicity The capacity of a chemical to cause injury Can be referred to as “potency” By their nature – pesticides are toxic They are intended to destroy pests Not all pesticides present the same hazard The more toxic – smaller doses are required

15 Toxicity Toxicity to humans Oral exposure (ingesting) Dermal exposure (skin contact)

16 Toxicity Chronic toxicity long term exposure Acute toxicity immediate exposure

17 Lethal Dose – LD 50 Necessary amount of pesticide to kill 50% of a test population Oral and dermal LD 50 measured in mg/kg that’s milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of target body weight Remember – 1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds

18 Lethal Dose – LD 50 Ex. LD 50 = 2 2 mg of pesticide per kg of body weight can be lethal Determine: Body weight in kilograms LD 50

19 Lethal Dose – LD 50 Next: Multiply body weight by LD 50 Ex. For a person weighing 220 lbs and an LD 50 = 2 or 2 mg/kg of pesticide (2mg/kg) (100kg) = 200mg or 0.2 grams

20 Lethal Concentration – LC 50 Concentrations measured in air or water micrograms/liter

21 Adjuvants Materials added to pesticides for various reasons, inc.: mixing & application enhancement reduce surface tension extend the life buffers & acidifiers

22 Adjuvants Continued: reduce drift compatibility reduce foaming attractants colorants deodorizers

23 Pest Groups

24 Pest Identification Proper identification To which category does the pest belong? Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Monera Kingdom Fungi Viruses, viroides, and MLOs

25 Pest Identification Common names reflect the host organism Lists of “acceptable common names” Weed Science Society of America Entomological Society of America Most pesticide labels refer to the “common name”

26 Invertebrate Pests Animals without backbones Includes insects spiders, mites and ticks mollusks nematodes and worms etc.

27 Invertebrate Pests What do these have in common? Insects, mites & ticks, centipedes, millipedes, sowbugs, scorpions, etc. Arthropods – large group of invertebrates Arthropododa – “jointed foot” Small, w/jointed legs and body parts, external skeleton Microscopic to several inches

28 Class Insecta

29 Life Cycles Insect life cycles fall into two categories Simple metamorphosis Complete metamorphosis

30 Simple Metamorphosis Young – nymphs or instars Nymphs resemble adults Molting increases size Wings are bud-like and fully form at last molt Nymphs and adults live in same habitat

31 Simple Metamorphosis


33 Complete Metamorphosis Adults and juveniles differ in form Larvae often worm-like Larvae similar in appearance but increased in size after each molt Wings develop in final molt Larvae typically have chewing mouthparts Adults tend to have sucking mouthparts

34 Complete Metamorphosis Pupa forms at final molt Pupa often covered by a cocoon Adult emerges form pupa at final molt Pale in color, wings short and soft upon emergence Color develops Wings extend and harden

35 Complete Metamorphosis


37 Spiders Class Arachnida Two distinct body parts - Cephalothorax - Abdomen Beneficial Nuisance indoors Few are dangerous

38 Mites and Ticks Class Arachnida Two distinct body parts - Gnathosoma - Idiosoma Some mites are beneficial Ticks are pests and can vector disease Two-Spotted Mite

39 Mite Pests & Locations Some common mite pests - Fuchsia Gall Mites - Two-Spotted Mites - Citrus Mites - Persea Mites Locations of mite pests - Undersides of leaves - Vegetative and flower buds - On fruit

40 Mite Damage & Controls Damage Sucks juices from plant cells Stippled appearance to foliage Russeting on fruit skin Can cover plants with fine webbing Controls Miticides or Acaricides Predaceous mites Maintenance of plants Use low N fertilizers Reduce dust Control ants

41 Insects Class Insecta Three distinct body parts - Head - Thorax - Abdomen Wings (if present)

42 Insect Anatomy

43 Insect Mouthparts Vary by species Used to identify species Chewing insects damage by chewing or boring - Caterpillars, grasshoppers, various beetles Piercing-sucking suck juices from plants Aphids, leafhoppers, scale, thrips, mites, mealybugs, true bugs, etc.

44 Insect Mouthparts

45 Insect mouthparts: a, antennae c, compound eye lb, labrium lr, labrum md, mandibles mx, maxillae

46 Order Orthoptera

47 Grasshoppers and Allies Order Orthoptera Characteristic – spiny hind legs Includes grasshoppers, crickets, katydids Life cycle – simple metamorphosis Found just about everywhere Chewing mouthparts Damage to foliage and new growth, roots Difficult to control in the landscape

48 Two-Stripped Grasshopper

49 Long-Horned Grasshopper

50 Crickets Field Cricket

51 Jerusalem or Sand Cricket

52 Cockroaches Order Blattaria Closely related to Orthoptera Divided into two groups Spiny hind legs Simple metamorphosis Chewing mouthparts Mostly an indoor pest Contaminate food stores Spreads disease Controls Various insecticides Traps Bait stations Boric acid Diatomaceous earth And….

53 Cockroaches

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