Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 1770-1831 PARTICULAR over the UNIVERSAL The triumvirate of modern discourse: immediate – mediate – concrete
HEGELHEGEL His original work was a theory on multiple fields: politics, art, law, and history. Applies his ideas toward the consciousness Some value can be placed on an object (or anything) and the opposite determination also belongs to the subject matter. Though it may appear that they are opposites, it is in transition or a synthesis of themselves. A mediation has occurred where a negative and positive meet. Consequently one is preserved and retained in the other. Ultimately a trifecta of the universe or a concept is itself, the negative of itself, and through negativity is mediated with itself. Thus forming itself as the universal and the identity of its moments (649).
MARXMARX I.tribal ownership II.communal and State ownership III.feudal or estate ownership 1818-1883
GRAMSCIGRAMSCI 1881-1937 Brings up the idea of hegemony in the introduction. Outside of ourselves there are two structures: private state Outside of the private state, there is the State The State can control a collective of private states
BAKHTINBAKHTIN 1895-1975 Takes speech or words and tries to explain their significance within the novel. Language lives in unitary only in an abstract form of grammar. However it has a different life or concrete worlds outside of that. Stratification of language means there is a different language for different professions. “Language is not an abstract system of normative forms but rather a heteroglot conception of the world.
BAKHTINBAKHTIN Language becomes one’s own, when one starts to incorporate it into their usage, otherwise it remains in language or limbo like status. Thematic elements of his work are looking into how language plays into a social and historical system. For instance the illiterate peasant on page 677. To support this example he incorporates passages from a novel and provides notations as to when language shifts, ie after Esquire-language becomes more official. To sum up his argument on words, they are not finite, but open to new contexts that dialogize it and with that to reveal even newer ways to mean. Rabelais and His World Brings about the concept of carnival to describe social developments or ideas. Brings about the idea of grotesque realism, which is as an all popular festive and utopian aspect. Again reinforces the ideas of words and how their meaning can differ or reinforce a pre-existing concept.
ALTHUSSERALTHUSSER 1918-1990 I.category of subject = primary = obvious elementary ideological effect II. incessant practice of ideological recognition = its consciousness WHAT?
ALTHUSSERALTHUSSER Time for a little MATH! Let all H = humans And, let all S = subjects Finally, let all I = individuals And, let all J = ideology ALL H=S ALL H=I Therefore, ALL S=I ALL I=J Therefore, ALL J = S
ALTHUSSERALTHUSSER Individuals are always-already subjects Individuals are “abstract” with respect to subjects which they always-already are: A tree is always-already its subject “tree-ness” Even before it becomes a tree Seed planted grows tree seed - genus species planted grows tree repeat
MACHEREYMACHEREY Poses the idea that language exists in multitude and the properties of the book. Though the book or the formation of ideas exist, the book is not subject to interpretation or it does not know itself. “Silence reveals speech-unless it is speech that reveals the silence,”(705). Nietzsche interrogation-the exact opposite of an examination as it will call itself into examination. In order to truly get at a work’s nature, questions guide the thought process to derive an answer. The first question is to try and get to the meaning of a work, almost discovering the content. Though at this stage, the secret is not hidden and does not conceal itself. In the second question, the work truly shows itself or provides the work’s reality.