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July 16, 2011 1. July 16, 2011 2.

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Presentation on theme: "July 16, 2011 1. July 16, 2011 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 July 16,

2 July 16,

3 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

4 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

5 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

6 July 16, What is the Weight of Evidence? The Weight of Evidence is a legal term used to gauge the sufficiency of proof that is presented in a legal dispute.

7 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

8 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 Historical – Grammatical approach Reference material for the period: SBL Dissertation Series # 143, The Impurity Systems of Qumran and the Rabbis Hannah K. Harrington Judaism: Practice and Belief, 63 BCE - 66 CE E. P. Sanders Judaism and the Origins of Christianity David Flusser

9 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 Background Where does the background issue of first century purity halakah come from? Leviticus 22:2-3 v2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, and that they profane not my holy name in those things which they hallow unto me: I am Yahweh.

10 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 Background Leviticus 22:2-3 v3 Say unto them, Whosoever he be of all your seed among your generations, that goeth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto Yahweh, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from My presence: I am Yahweh.

11 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 Background The Torah prescribes that priests must eat the food of the sacrifices and offerings brought by the people in a state of purity. This was extended (1) to all the people and (2) even for regular food at a regular meal.

12 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 Pay close attention to English words that are translated by different Greek words. That is the grammatical hint that brings understanding.

13 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 #-# Matthew first, then Mark X-# Matthew does not have corresponding text to Mark #-X Matthew has a reading not found in Mark Follow Marks text for the most part $. The questions and/or thoughts to consider in current verse(s)

14 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark Then came together unto him [Yeshua] the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, which came from Jerusalem. $. Who, where, what

15 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 X-2 And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with defiled [ koinai/j ], that is to say, with unwashed [ avni,ptoij ] hands, they found fault. $. Who appears to have washed and not washed? Also, type of washing action

16 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. Marken commentary on purity – for who? X-3 For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash [ ni,ywntai ] their hands often, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders. X-4 And when they come from the market, except they wash [ bapti,swnta i], they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.

17 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, ‘Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen [ koinai/j ] hands’? $. Is Yeshua a slacker?

18 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 3-X But he answered and said unto them, Why do you transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? $. Yeshua flips accountability question Note: Yeshua knew they were rich and wanted a way to not have to spend their wealth on their parents.

19 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 Why were bodily purity laws given? They were daily reminders of the necessity to have a pure heart. $. [6-13] Yeshua turns the discussion to the issue of soul purity, the weightier matter they were overlooking (on purpose).

20 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 The Pharisees behavior was hypocritical because they were definitely concerned about bodily purity (as though it was the end all) but their actions testified to a disconnect between a bodily action “teaching” a higher truth, that is, soul purity.

21 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. Yeshua quotes Isaiah 29:13 (more later) 7,8,9-6,7 He answered and said unto them, Well hath Isaiah prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, ‘This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.’ Howbeit in vain do they worship [ se,bontai, ] me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

22 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 X-8,9 ‘For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing [ bapti,smoj ] of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do.’ And he said unto them, ‘Full well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your own tradition’. $. Marken commentary (8) for who?

23 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. 1. Yeshua’s teaching ability called into question 2. Yeshua flips accountability question 3. Scathing condemnation from Isaiah 4. Follows with details of exactly why he is saying what he is saying 4-10 “For Moses said, ‘Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death’.”

24 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark “But you say, ‘If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free.’” $. Yeshua continues detailed explanation

25 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 X-12 “And you no longer let him do anything for his father or mother Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which you have delivered: and many such like things you do.” $. Yeshua concludes detailed explanation

26 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $ And when he had called all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one of you, and understand: $. It appears that possibly the crowd has misunderstood his rebuke of the Pharisees and wondered if he was dismissing the whole matter of ritual purity. Yeshua will now explain to the people clearly with an analogy from Torah what he means for them to understand.

27 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. Yeshua drops the bomb – but still not clear enough for his disciples (see v17) Notice the double meaning There is nothing outside a man, that going into him can [ellipsis] defile [ koinw/sai ] him: but the things which come out of him, those are the things that [ellipsis] defile [ koinou/nta ] the man. Deut. 23:12-14

28 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 X-16 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. $. Not in Matthew and late in Greek

29 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. God is Love Politically Correct translation 12-X Then came his disciples, and said unto him, “Did you know that the Pharisees were offended, after they heard this saying”?

30 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. God is Love Politically Correct translation 13-X Yeshua said, “I am so sorry. Maybe I need a time out.”

31 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 13-X But he answered and said, “Every plant, which my Heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up. $. ‘Rooted up’ implies a previous planting but by who?

32 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 14-X Leave them alone: they are blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.” $. What are they ‘blind’ to?

33 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark And when he had entered into the house from the people, Peter, representing the disciples, asked him to explain the parable. $. Discouraging moment for the Great Teacher, his disciples still under the spell of the Pharisaic theological perspective

34 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark a And he said unto them, “Are you still not getting it?” $. Yeshua uses a strong word [ avsu,netoi ]

35 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. Yeshua will now change subject right in the middle of his teaching and discuss clean and unclean as it regards that which you can legally eat and that which is forbidden. Switching Bibles P.C. The Law Has Been Done Away With translation

36 July 16, P.C. The Law Has Been Done Away With translation Don’t you realize that no matter what you eat, it cannot defile you. Why? Because whatever enters the mouth does not go into the heart but into the stomach, from there it proceeds out into the sewer. Therefore, even though I just chewed out the Pharisees for laying aside the commandment of God, I’m now going to do exactly the same thing, in that I now declare you can eat anything for nothing is unclean anymore.

37 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 $. Yeshua, for the second time, will explain again, using even more clear language, the concept of “nothing that you eat can defile you but what comes out can” b,19a Don’t you realize that no matter what you eat, it cannot [ morally | ceremonially ] defile you;

38 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 17b-19 Why? Because whatever food enters the mouth does not go into the heart but into the stomach, from there it proceeds out into the toilet [sewer], purging all food But those things which proceed out of the mouth, that is, words spoken, come forth from the heart; and they can [ morally ] defile the man. $. Yeshua finally clears up the confusion between food going in and words coming out

39 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark 7 19a-21 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, 19b-22 Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness $. Yeshua gives a list of what can come out of the heart of man

40 July 16, Matthew 15 & Mark These are the things which [ morally ] defile a man: but to eat with unwashed hands does not defile a man. $. Yeshua sums up the entire argument that eating without going through the ceremonial ritual of hand washing will not defile a man in any way, shape, or form. On the other hand, setting aside the commandments of God….

41 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

42 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

43 July 16, points lead to the Truth in 7:19 1. Gender and number do not have to agree. 2. Yeshua just chewed out the Pharisees 3. Context not about food 4. Acts 21:20 - Tens of thousands 5. Acts 21:24 Paul right in there 6. Millennial Kingdom - it’s coming!

44 July 16, points lead to the Truth in 7:19 6. Millennial Kingdom - it’s coming! Ezekiel 44:23 And they shall teach my people the difference between the holy and profane, and cause them to discern between the unclean and the clean.

45 July 16, points lead to the Truth in 7:19 7. Yeshua under the law – Deut 4:2, Matthew 5:19 8. Parallel in Matthew 15: No Problem 9. No historical debate in the 1 st century 10. Mark assembled under Peter’s direction. If Peter knew “all meats clean”, explain Acts 10?

46 July 16, The Verdict is in…Reasonable Doubt After examining the previous 10 points in detail, the Weight of Evidence clearly rejects the translation “in saying this, he made all meats clean”.

47 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

48 July 16, Romans 14: Part III Mark 7:19 (Part II review) What is the Weight of Evidence? Mark 7 & Matthew 15 together 10 points lead to the Truth in 7:19 Isaiah 29:13 in Mark, Matthew Romans 14: Part IV - Spelling it Out

49 July 16, Back to Isaiah 29:13 Quote in both Matthew and Mark not from OT Hebrew but from Greek LXX. 1. This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth (YNYY) 2. Honoureth me with their lips 3. But their heart is far from me

50 July 16, Back to Isaiah 29:13 4. Hebrew - Their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: 4. ISR – Their fear of Me has become a command of men that is taught!

51 July 16, Back to Isaiah 29:13 4. Hebrew - Their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: 4. ISR – Their fear of Me has become a command of men that is taught! 4. OT Greek - in vain do they worship me, teaching the commandments and doctrines of men. 4. NT Greek- in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

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57 July 16, Rabbinic Judaism says… We have the Original Hebrew It’s known as the Masoretic Text Is their claim true? What does Maimonides say?

58 July 16, Rabbinic Judaism says… Maimonides 13 Principles 8. “I believe with complete faith that the entire Torah which is now in our possession is the same as that which was given to Moshe the Rabbi, may he rest in peace.”

59 July 16, Rabbinic Judaism says… Implications… 1. If it is, then the New Testament is SERIOUSLY FLAWED and cannot be used! 2. Yeshua is not the Messiah 3. The Rabbis are still in charge As they say… “The game is afoot!”

60 July 16, KJV The OLD TESTAMENT comes from the Masoretic text 2. In the 1769 edition, over 24,000 changes were made from the 1611

61 July 16, Institute of Scriptural Research Page 1239: The Text THE TANAK (Pre-Messianic Scriptures, commonly called The Old Testament) The Tanak in this translation is based on the Massoretic Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Scriptures, printed in the 1937 edition of Rudolph Kittel's Biblia Hebraica.

62 July 16, Complete Jewish Bible – Dr. Stern OT is a revision of the 1917 Jewish Publication Society of America Version Tanakh Also known as… The Holy Scriptures According to the Masoretic Text

63 July 16, What is a “qere” and a “ketiv”? A “qere” (pronounced ‘keh-ray’) is a marginal note by a scribe. A “ketiv” (pronounced ‘keh-teev’) is the actual text the note is associated with. In many places in our OT text, the translation that appears uses the ‘qere’ and ignores the ‘ketiv’.

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70 July 16, [Page 2] The biblical text has been transmitted in many ancient and medieval sources which are known to us from modern editions in different languages.

71 July 16, [Page 2] We now have manuscripts (MSS) in Hebrew and other languages from the Middle Ages and ancient times as well as fragments of leather and papyrus scrolls two thousand years old or more.

72 July 16, [Page 2] These sources shed light on and witness to the biblical text, hence their name: “textual witnesses.” All of these textual witnesses differ from each other to a greater or lesser extent.

73 July 16, [Page 2] Since no textual source contains what could be called “the” biblical text, a serious involvement in biblical studies clearly necessitates the study of all sources, including the differences between them.

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75 July 16, [Page 3] One would not have expected differences between the printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, for if a fully unified textual tradition would have been possible at any one given period, it would certainly seem to be so after the invention of printing.

76 July 16, [Page 3] Such is not the case… Some editions even differ from each other in their subsequent printings without even informing the readers.

77 July 16, [Page 11 Heading] 3. In Many Details, M Does Not Reflect the “Original Text” of the Biblical Books

78 July 16, [Page 11] It has become clear from the preceding paragraphs that one of the postulates of biblical research is that the text preserved in the various representatives of what is commonly called the Masoretic Text, does not reflect the “original text” of the biblical books in many details.

79 July 16, [Page 11] Even were we to surmise that M reflects the “original” form of the Bible, we would still have to decide which Masoretic Text reflects this “original text” since the Masoretic Text is not a uniform textual unit, but is itself represented by many witnesses.

80 July 16, [Page 19] The Masoretic Text (M), sometimes called the “received text”, is strictly speaking a medieval representative of a group of ancient texts of the Bible which already at an early stage was accepted as the sole text by a central stream in Judaism.

81 July 16, [Page 19] Because of its place in Judaism as the central text of the Hebrew bible, M also became the determinative text for the Hebrew bible of Christianity and of the scholarly world.

82 July 16, [Page 19] All printed editions of the Bible contain M.

83 July 16, [Page 19] Nevertheless, M reflects merely one textual tradition out of many that existed in the period of the First and Second Temple.

84 July 16, [Page 24] …the preference of M by a central stream in Judaism does not necessarily imply that it contains the best text of the Bible.

85 July 16, [Page 24] Both the Hebrew parent text of G and certain of the Qumran texts (Q) reflect excellent texts, often better than that of M.

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91 July 16, Implications From the man himself!

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96 July 16, Implications for the Septuagint The Septuagint has been recognized from 1850 onward as a major tool for the study of the Hebrew Bible. Scholars have tried to reconstruct the Hebrew parent text of the Septuagint, what we call the ‘volage’.

97 July 16, Implications for the Septuagint Now, for the first time, we found in Qumran some Hebrew fragments that are very close to – almost identical with – the Septuagint text in Greek. These are fragments that have now endorsed the correctness of the reconstructions from the Septuagint.

98 July 16, Implications for the Septuagint We now know that we are entitled to reconstruct that Greek text into Hebrew. The whole process of translating the Greek back into Hebrew has been validated.

99 July 16, Implications for Hebrew Roots Think of the LXX as Yahweh’s divine action in preserving the Apostolic Hebrew Scriptures When you see an OT quote that doesn’t work, then check out the LXX. When you see an LXX reference, think A-Train Hebrew used by the Apostles.

100 July 16, Other Translations in the Synagogue Aramaic Tragums (Targumim) In the synagogue, the Targum was provided along with the Hebrew scripture reading. By means of it, interpretations of scripture could be expounded.

101 July 16, What would help us study Torah? Torah in English Greek Torah translated into English Aramaic Targums (2) translated into English All in one 4 column parallel view arranged via the yearly Torah portion

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103 July 16, Some Examples of MT LXX NT Isaiah 61:1 [Luke 4:18] Deut. 32:8 [Sons of Elohim] Deut. 32:43 [Hebrews 1:6],, Psalms 22:16 [MT incorrect] Psalms 40:6 [Hebrews 10:5] Psalm 145:13 [Acrostic but LXX (v13)] Isaiah 53:11 [He shall see light] Amos 9:12 [Acts 15:17]

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106 July 16, Tov accepts (p. 200) that most deliberate changes were created prior to 200 A.D.

107 July 16, September 28,


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