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Tutorial on Ple4edu Educational version of PLE, THE software for strength and stability design of (buried) pipelines After downloading and installation, you will find this shortcut on your desktop. Double click to start the program The total tutorial will take about 50 min., but of course you can click to proceed faster. 1 Tutorial version 1.2

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Some tips Use this presentation within Powerpoint 2003 or later because of the animations contained The presentation performs automatically and you can use the standard action buttons (down left). In case you want to skip screens, you can use the right mouse button. In case you want to pause the presentation, you may use as well the Pause/Break key on the keyboard (toggle). 2 To open a table from an overview list, it is indicated as “Click”. This may be a ‘double click’ or a ‘single click+show button’

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After clicking the shortcut the program will startup and will result in the following screen: ROADMAP panel OVERVIEW panel WORKSPACE panel Use this icon to show or hide the ROADMAP panel Use this icon to show or hide the OVERVIEW panel Use this icon to show or hide the WORKSPACE panel..and if you are lost…use this icon to restore the default panel layout Layout 3

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We will now open a new ‘project’ and name it DEMO CASE Open new empty project Demo case …and ‘save’ Optional ‘project name’ Design function 1 Optional ‘project description’ 4

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soil settlement Demo case Pipeline, crossing an old refilled ditch causing large soil settlements Pipe Soil Pipeline bending stiffness partly resists deformation 15 m Questions: 1.To what extent will the pipeline follow the soil settlements? 2.What is the maximum stressing of the pipeline? 5

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Limitations of educational version General model only (no Code dependent features) General model only (no Code dependent features) Maximum number of 50 elements (51 nodes) Maximum number of 50 elements (51 nodes) No print or import/export options No print or import/export options No advanced options (branches, T-pieces, offshore, articulated, towing, material yielding, construction phasing etc) No advanced options (branches, T-pieces, offshore, articulated, towing, material yielding, construction phasing etc) But non-linear soil and geometrical behaviour included….. But non-linear soil and geometrical behaviour included….. and of course free use for educational purposes and of course free use for educational purposes 6

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Modelling As a result of the limited availability of elements and the symmetry of the questions to be answered, the model will be cut at the mid settlement section, and at the other end far enough away from the settlement section to avoid interaction. Symmetry axis soil pipeline rigid, vertical roller support main settlement area 500 mm construction subsidence 2 mm Elastically supported, half infinite pipeline connection 7

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Subdivision into elements Symmetry axis main settlement area construction subsidence Main points M 1. M at mid point M M1 near M to obtain near support internal forces R 3. R at settlement transition R1R2 4. R1 and R2 near R for same reason O 5. O at end of pipeline section considered C 6. C at estimated point of maximum bending moment *100 elements 15*4872*1005*50027*500 total nr elements = 50 8

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Global coordinate system X-axis almost along pipeline X-axis here from M to O Y-axis, horizontal and perpendicular to X-axis (right handed) Z-axis, perpendicular to X and Y axes, and pointing upward (right handed) ORIGIN 9

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Now we will input the pipeline shape into the program. This is done in Design function 2 Click on DF2 ‘Pipeline Configuration’ Click on the ‘default’ icon to get default ORIGIN- data (if not yet available use the ‘more buttons’ facility) Click on the required ‘test’ icon to check the input data (if not yet available use the ‘more buttons’ facility) Close table Replace ‘start’ by ‘M’ Click on ‘Pipeline origin’ Design function 2 10

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Now the polygon has to be defined by means of the polygon points and their X- and Y-distances relative to the previous point and their absolute Z-value. In this case all Y and Z-values remain zero. At the polygon points the radius of the pipe bend is provided. In this case there are no bends and this is specified by R = 0 The length of ‘pipe elements’ is specified per line between the polygon point and the previous point. Point N Point N+1 Point N-1 line N line N+1 X(N) X(N+1) Z(N) Z(N+1) Element length line N R(N) Polygon 11

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Next we have to input the polygon points with lines attached click Symmetry axis M M1 100 RR1R OC *10015*4872*1005*50027*500 The table is rearranged a bit to fit all columns on the workspace. This can be done as well by hiding the roadmap. And the workspace is enlarged vertically ‘ENTER’ to get a new line next point …and so on Test.. …and close Polygon table 12

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All required data for this function has been provided and we will now process the function to be sure that indeed we do not exceed the allowable number of elements in this educational version Click here to process the function Input tables are ‘locked’ because the results of this input are stored in the project database If you want to open the input tables again, click here to ‘set back’ the function. Results are removed from the project database in order to remain consistent. Locked tables & Set back 13

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Let’s have a look at the results of this function. For reason of clarity here the input tables list is hidden and the output tables list is made visible. Hide input tables list Check this box to show the output tables list Click to see the ‘NODES’ list Click here to maximize the workspace Scroll to end of table Indeed there are no more than 51 nodes. Check on node number 14

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The pipeline axis has been defined now and we proceed with specification of the pipe/soil properties in the Y-Z plane perpendicular to the pipeline axis Pipe axis Pipe properties DF 3.1 Pipe/Soil properties DF 3.2 Boundary conditions DF 3.3 Eventually external supports DF = Design Function Boundary conditions 15

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Pipe data (DF3.1) All data in N – mm - o C All data in N – mm - o C Pipe material steel E = N/mm 2 = 0.3 = mm/mm/ o C Pipe material steel E = N/mm 2 = 0.3 = mm/mm/ o C Pipe dimensions D o = 1010 mm WT= 10 mm Pipe dimensions D o = 1010 mm WT= 10 mm Deadweight ignored Deadweight ignored DoDo WT 16

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Click ‘Pipe data’ Click ‘material location’ Reference name of material to be specified X-coordinate where this material starts Test and Close Material location table 17

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Hide roadmap panel to free space for tables Click ‘isotropic materials’ Use ‘test’ icon to see which data are ‘required’ Column headings speak for themselves Test and Close Shear modulus G is calculated from E and, but can be overruled by an input datum Isotropic material table 18

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Click ‘Outer diameter’ Procedure as before Test and Close Pipe diameter table 19

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Same procedure Click ‘Wall thicknesses’ Test and Close Pipe wall thickness table 20

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In the tables seen so far, there often is a double set of input data, like for instance the wall thicknesses table we just passed: Data set 1 Location of transition from data set 1 to 2 Data set 2 If on a row items of data set 2 are not provided, it means by default item (2) = item (1) If on row N items of data set 2 differ from the same items in data set 1, then there is a ‘jump’ in the data line of that item at point XP(N). If on row N+1 items of data set 1 differ from the same items in row N data set 2, then there is a linear path from N to N+1 over the line from XP(N) to XP(N+1). XP(N) Item (N,1) = Item (N,2) XP(N+1) Item (N+1,1) = Item (N+1,2) linear XP(N-1) Item (N-1,1) = Item (N-1,2) XP(0) by default XP(end) by default (specified) Data entry explanation 21

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Pipe/soil interaction upward grade Pipe displaces upward relative to the soil or the soil moves downward relative to the pipe. Soil reaction on top of pipe pointing downward. Vertical soil stiffness upward [ KLT, N/mm 3 ] Vertical passive soil reaction upward [ RVT, N/mm 2 ] R KLT RVT 22

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grade Pipe displaces sideward relative to the soil or the soil moves sideward relative to the pipe in the other direction. Soil reaction at side of pipe pointing opposite the displacement direction. Horizontal soil stiffness [ KLH, N/mm 3 ] Horizontal passive soil reaction [ RH, N/mm 2 ] R KLH RH Pipe/soil interaction sideward 23

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Pipe displaces downward relative to the soil or the soil moves upward relative to the pipe. Soil reaction at bottom of pipe pointing upward. Vertical soil stiffness downward [ KLS, N/mm 3 ] Downward passive soil reaction [ RVS, N/mm 2 ] (bearing capacity) R KLS RVS grade Pipe/soil interaction downward 24

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Pipe/soil interaction generalised Vertical soil stiffness KLS = N/mm 3 Horizontal soil stiffness KLH = N/mm 3 All directions soil stiffness KL( Upward ultimate passive soil resistance RVT = N/mm 2 Downward ultimate passive soil resistance (bearing capacity) RVS = N/mm 2 Horizontal ultimate passive soil resistance RVT = N/mm 2 All directions ultimate passive soil resistance RV( ) Extrapolation to all directions 25

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Pipe displaces or rotates longitudinally relative to the soil. Soil friction reaction around pipe opposes movement of the pipe. Ultimate elastic friction displacement [ UF, mm ] in this case 5 mm Ultimate soil friction reaction [ F, N/mm 2 ] in this case N/mm 2 R F UF Movement of pipe Friction of soil Movement of pipe Friction of soil Pipe/soil interaction axial 26

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Click ‘Soil data’ Hide Roadmap Click horizontal soil stiffness In this case all soil data are considered to be constant over the pipeline length, so we can start at XP=0 ‘Dividing’ and ‘Multiplication’ factors are ‘uncertainty factors’ on the soil data. Use for the time being the default values ‘Half band width accuracy’ is parameter to control the iteration accuracy on the soil reactions. Use for the time being the default values. Test and Close Soil data (DF3.2) 27

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The other soil data are provided in the same way Click KLS Test and close Click F The upward soil stiffness is equal to the downward stiffness in this case and the table can be left empty Test and close Click UF Test and close Click RVS Test and close Click RVT Test and close Click RH Test and close Click UNCER Select for each soil parameter ‘mean’, meaning that no variation on the soil parameters is applied. Test and close Soil data tables 28

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Explanation on the uncertainty factors Uncertainty factors represent the uncertainty in the pipe/soil data. Soil data may differ from location to location, but there is also uncertainty in the methods of measurement of basic soil data and variation in calculation methods of pipe/soil parameters from these basic soil data. The uncertainty factors create upper (multiplication) and lower (division) boundary values for the pipe/soil parameters in order to achieve conservative stress and strain calculation results for the pipeline. In general a stiff soil (upper values) generates conservative results in case of ‘deformation driven’ loadings (e.g. settlements, tempera- ture loadings, etc.) and a weak soil (lower values) conservative results in case of ‘force driven’ loadings. (e.g. concentrated deadweights, upheaval buckling, etc.) ‘mean’ value of soil stiffness K m ‘mean’ value of ultimate soil resistance R m RmRm KuKu KmKm KlKl RuRu RlRl ‘stiff ‘soil performance ‘weak’ soil performance Default values for the uncertainty factors are taken from the Dutch pipeline code NEN Uncertainty factors 29

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Explanation on the ‘band width accuracy’ Soil is a non-linear material in the sense that in case of a loading there is an elasto-plastic relationship between the reaction force and the related displacement. However, all FEM (finite element method) programs (like PLE) are based on linear solution methods (N equations with N unknowns). This means that iterations are required to ‘follow’ the non-linear behaviour of the soil. R A bilinear R- relationship is shown, but PLE offers various curved relationships as well. soil stiffness iteration 1: K 1 (R- as result from iteration 1 5% band width soil stiffness iteration 2: K 2 (R- as result from iteration 2 soil stiffness iteration 3: K 3 (R- as result from iteration 3 soil stiffness iteration 4: K 4 (R- as result from iteration 4 Result fulfils R- condition Band width accuracy 30

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Boundary conditions Next step is to specify the boundary conditions at both ends of the piece of pipeline considered. The piece is cut out of a long pipeline and this shall not affect the local behaviour of the pipeline due to the local loadings. There are three options to choose from: 1.INFINITE meaning the pipeline continues, but displacements at this end point shall stay within elastic limits, 2.FREE meaning the endpoint is free to move without constraints, 3.FIXED meaning the end point is rigidly fixed in all directions. INFINITEFREEFIXED Boundary conditions (DF3.3) 31

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Boundary conditions And at a boundary there are two options for the end condition: OPEN:At an INFIN boundary, loadings (pressure, temperature, settlements) continue over the connected half infinite long pipeline. At a FREE boundary, the medium flows out freely without any restraint. At a FIXED boundary, loadings are counteracted by the support. CLOSED: At an INFIN boundary, loadings (pressure, temperature, settlements) are stopped at the connection to the half infinite long pipeline. At a FREE boundary, the pipeline is capped. At a FIXED boundary, internal loadings are counteracted by a cap. Boundary conditions table 32

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Boundary conditions In our case we will attach an INFINITE boundary condition to the right end of the pipeline. The left boundary is a special case, because the boundary condition shall represent the symmetrical behaviour of the pipeline. To that purpose we attach a FREE end and attach as well an external support. This external support shall fix this free end in all directions, except in the Z-direction to simulate the vertical roller support. The stiffness properties of the support “ROLLER’ are specified in a separate table and this support is attached to the point M in another table. INFINITE FREE Boundary conditions application 33

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Show roadmap Select ‘model boundary’ and hide roadmap again Click ENDPTS Test and close Click ELSPRL Test and close Click ELSPRS Test and close Additional boundary conditions 34

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Show roadmap again The last three DF’s we have completed the data without processing the functions. We will now use the PROCESS function on the Roadmap to process all completed functions up to the function that cannot be processed Process function 35

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Loadings Up till now we focused on the structural items of the pipeline structure, the shape of the pipeline, the geometrical and stiffness items of the pipe cross section, pipe/soilmechanical data and finally the structural boundary conditions. From these data the structural stiffness matrix can be composed. Now we have to specify the loadings that act on or within the pipeline structure. Distinction is made between the loadings that act on the pipeline structure as a ‘beam’ and the loading that work locally on the pipeline as a series of ‘rings’. ‘beam’ behaviour ‘ring’ behaviour ‘Beam’ and ‘Ring’ loadings 36

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‘beam’ loadings internal or external pressure (especially the ‘Poisson’-effect) temperature variations soil settlements (3 directions) and construction subsidences nodal force systems Ring expansion due to internal pressure Axial contraction due to internal pressure Pipe stiffness resists soil settlement ‘Beam’ loadings 37

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Loadings (DF4.2)Loadings (DF4.2)Loadings (DF4.2)Loadings (DF4.2) Click ‘Pipeline loading’ Click SETZ Mind the minus sign! (Pos. Z-axis upward) Mind the jump function at XP=7500 mm Test and close Process function 38

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‘beam’ calculation The structural data and loading data are available now and we proceed with the actual calculation of the pipeline as a ‘beam’. To that purpose first the load combination has to be constituted from the various load cases provided in the previous function. This is done by specifying a ‘general load factor’ applicable to all load cases and ‘partial load factors’ per load case. In this case we will set the general load factor to 1 and the soil settlement factor to 1 as well. All other factors are set to 0. ‘Beam’ calculation 39

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Click ‘Pipeline behaviour’ Click LOCASE Test and close Click GEOCTL Use default values Test and close Process function Loading combination table 40

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‘Beam’ results Let us have a look at the results of the ‘beam’ calculation. To that purpose we open the tables: displacements, internal forces and soil reactions. Keep in mind, that most results are given as a scalar entity with angle of the vector. or X Z displacement X Y Z M MM bending moment Y X M RR Z R soil reaction or For instance: 41

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uncheck check Click displacements Click internal forces Click soil reactions These three tables are ‘open’ now Maximise Workspace As a table provides little information on the coherence of the contained data we will make a ‘single graph’, starting with a N-Z graph. Click hereHold down ctl-key and click here And click then here on the single graph icon Z-displacements (max. about 60 mm) Nodes located on their X-coordinate Click on axis to toggle to the X-coordinates Go back to the ‘displacements’ table Click here with ctl key down ….and click on S-graph icon again Rotation graph is added with its own scaling Single graph 42

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…and go to ‘internal forces’ Close graph click Ctl+click..and click S-graph Ctl+click M =180 o M =0 o close graph …and go to ‘soil reactions’ click Ctl+click click R =270 o RVT soil failure on top of pipe R =90 o R =270 o close graph …and go back to ‘displacements’ Multi graph 43

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Ctl+click We will now compare the Z-displacements of the pipeline with the soil settlement load, using the multi-graph facility. Click the multi-graph icon Click OK Show roadmap Click pipeline loading Click Overview Click the elaborated ‘Pipeline loads’ Click Ctl+click Click M-graph icon Click the multiple tables graph icon Click OK Show Overview Link X2 to X1Link Y2 to Y1 Set Ymin to -500 mmSet Ymax to 0 mm Click Show the graph The pipeline does not follow the settlement and ‘spans’ the settlement area. Close graph …and restore default layout Multi graph specification 44

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Stress calculation scheme Now the internal forces are known, the stresses in the cross sections (at the mid-elements) can be calculated, after some additional data is provided: the overburden load distribution eventual additional top load distribution (e.g. traffic load) horizontal grain pressure as ratio of the vertical grain pressure bottom support angle 180 o Distribution along pipeline 180 o Distribution along pipeline 120 o 45

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Click ‘Cross-section data’ Hide roadmap Click ‘Neutral soil load’ Test and close No extra top loads Click ‘Horizontal soil support’ Test and close Click ‘Soil support angle’ From 0 to 50% Min. support angle = 70 o From 50 to 100% support angle grows from 70 o to 180 o Grow curve is sinus Test and close process Stress calculation tables 46

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Stress calculation results Finally we reached the point where we can make the stress calculations in the cross sections of the pipeline, as all data are available now. The only thing still to do is to specify the cross sections where the stresses have to be calculated and whether or not the additional top load has to be taken into account. (In this case there is no top load) The ‘allowable stress’ to be specified is for overstressing indication only. In the various stress output tables the stress components are explained. In the regular stress output tables (‘max’-tables) only the extreme value of a stress component per cross section is shown and as a result related stress components are not necessary located at the same point of the cross section. In the additional output tables the detailed stress components over the circumference at the inner and outer wall side are shown of the last specified cross section in the table SECTION. 47

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Cross section tableCross section tableCross section tableCross section table Click ‘Cross section behaviour’ Click table SECTION First elementLast element 72% of yield Test and close Process function 48

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uncheck check Hide roadmap Click max. check stresses Click ‘Max’ icon Maximum Von Mises stress at element 19 Maximum Von Mises stress 49

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Stress results coordinate system Additionally to the global coordinate system explained before, there is an additional coordinate system within the cross section X [mm] Y [mm] Z [mm] [mm] Inner wall side [i ] Outer wall side [o ] Mid wall [m] 50

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Collection of all cross sectional data Collection of all cross sectional loading data Click max. stresses in straight pipe Hide Overview Stresses due to internal forces in the ‘BEAM’ Stresses due to AXIAL FORCE Uniformly distributed over circumference Uniformly distributed over wall thickness (SXUBO) Stresses due to internal forces in the ‘BEAM’ Stresses due to BENDING MOMENT Linearly distributed over circumference Uniformly distributed over wall thickness (SXUB1) Stresses due to internal forces in the ‘BEAM’ Stresses due to TWISTING MOMENT Uniformly distributed over circumference Uniformly distributed over wall thickness (TZUB0) Stresses due to internal forces in the ‘BEAM’ Stresses due to SHEAR FORCE Sine shaped over circumference Uniformly distributed over wall thickness (TZUB1) Maximum ‘beam’ stress table 51

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Max imu m ‘ring ’ stres s tabl e Bends not available here Click ‘Max stresses from lateral loadings’ Hide Overview Stresses due to PRESSURE on the ‘RING’ Stresses due to HOOP FORCE Uniformly distributed over circumference Uniformly distributed over wall thickness (SFUBA) Stresses due to internal forces in the ‘RING’ Stresses due to CIRCUMFERENTIAL FORCE Load dependently shaped over circumference Uniformly distributed over wall thickness (SFURA) Stresses due to internal forces in the ‘RING’ Stresses due to CIRCUMFERENTIAL SHEAR FORCE Load dependently shaped over circumference Parabolicly distributed over wall thickness (TXMRA) Stresses due to internal forces in the ‘RING’ Stresses due to CIRCUMFERENTIAL BENDING MOMENTS Load dependently shaped over circumference Linearly distributed over wall thickness (both X and ) (SFIRA, SFORA, SXIRA, SXORA) 52

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Max imu m stres s com pone nts Click ‘Maximum total stresses …and hide ‘Overview’ Maximum stress components each the maximum of the component in the cross section sxit-max sxot-max sfit-max tzut-max sfot-max txmt-max seit-max Von Mises Locations of maximum stress components arbitrarily chosen for clarity 53 seot-max Von Mises

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Maximum principal stresses Click ‘Maximum principal stresses Extreme principal stresses at outer wall side Extreme principal stresses at inner wall side 54

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Maximum check stresses Click ‘Maximum check stresses’ Max. principal stress in any point of the cross section Extreme negative principal stress in any point of the cross section Max. shear principal stress in any point of the cross section (third principal stress taken into account) Max. Von Mises stress in any point of the cross section Max. circumferential stress in any point of the cross section Max. axial stress in any point of the cross section Max. hoop pressure stress in any point of the cross section 55

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Maximum radial deformations Click ‘Maximum radial deformations Click ‘Extremes’-icon The maximum radial deformation is mm (inward, indicated by minus sign) 22 1 = 7.45 mm D = 1 + 2 = 1.3% of D = 0.013*1000 = 13 mm 56

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Detailed stresses at maximum stressed section You may recall, that the maximum Von Mises stress in the pipeline occurs in element 19 and amounts to 122 N/mm 2. The last calculated section, specified in the table SECTION, is stored with all its detailed stresses. So in order to make these detailed stresses available for further analysis, the section 19 has to become the last section to be calculated. In order to do so, the DF6 is set back and element 19 is added to the list and the function is processed once again. 57

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Add max. stressed sectionAdd max. stressed sectionAdd max. stressed sectionAdd max. stressed section Click Set Back button of DF6 Yes Click Section table Add section 19, test table, close table and process the function (on the roadmap) uncheck Check and hide roadmap 58

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Relationship between tables with maximum stresses and tables with detailed stresses stresses in rings stresses in bends stresses in straight pipe totalled stresses principal stresses check stresses ring deformations Maximum stress components per element along the pipeline axis Stress components over circumference of one cross section Maximum values are calculated from 144 points over the circumference of each cross section Stress components are shown in 48 points over the circumference of the cross section = (N-1)*7.5 degr. N Relationship between stress tablesRelationship between stress tablesRelationship between stress tablesRelationship between stress tables 59

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Stress distribution in straight pipe section Stresses from pipe bending moment [N/mm 2 ] Stresses from pipe bending momentStresses from pipe bending momentStresses from pipe bending momentStresses from pipe bending moment 60

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Circumferent ial normal ring stress Stress distribution in ring section Circumferential normal ring stress [N/mm 2 ]

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Circumfer ential wall bending stress +134 (MGRAPH) Circumferential wall bending ring stresses [N/mm 2 ] Circumferential inner wall bending stress Circumferential outer wall bending stress Axial outer wall bending stress Axial inner wall bending stress

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Von Mises ring stressVon Mises ring stressVon Mises ring stressVon Mises ring stress Check stress distribution Von Mises ring stress distribution [N/mm 2 ]

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RadialdeformationRadialdeformationRadialdeformationRadialdeformation Radial deformation Radial deformation [mm] o o 64

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Answers to the questions 65 At the beginning of this tutorial two questions were asked: 1. To what extent will the pipeline follow the soil settlement? The maximum deflection of the pipeline at the middle of the settlement area amounts to 61 mm, whereas the soil settlement is 500 mm. 2. What is the maximum stressing of the pipeline? The maximum stressing occurs in a cross section near the edge of the settlement area due to the peak in the bearing soil reaction. The maximum uniaxial circumferential stress amounts to 135 N/mm2, whereas the maximum uniaxial longitudinal stress amounts to 47 N/mm2. The maximum Von Mises stress amounts to 122 N/mm2.

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Special screens warnings table Click ‘warnings/error’ table In session 20 (latest) in DF5 warning W500/17 (see Help) was found, saying a large value of the spring support was found. This, however, was our intention. 66

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Special screens history table Special screens status table The ‘status’ table provides information on the criteria (program version etc.) and options chosen by the user on which the calculations are based and the ‘occurrence’ number of each individual input and output table. This status table is for QA purposes. Click ‘status’ table 67

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Special screens history tableSpecial screens history tableSpecial screens history tableSpecial screens history table Special screens history table The ‘history’ table provides a log on the actions performed with a project. The first time a project is established, the history starts within session 1 and each next time the project is started a new session is added. The history table is for archiving purpose on the project. Click ‘history’ table 68

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Special feature table naming In various screens of this tutorial reference was made to names of tables, e.g. ‘Click table SECTION’ or the name of a stress component SXUB0 was used. These are names that have been used before in the MSDOS version of the program and many users are very familiar with these names, and because they are short, it is an easy reference. In the program screens these names are not shown, but there is a special facility to show these names. If this feature has been chosen, the short names are shown ahead of the table descriptions. An example is: ‘short names’.. and before it was: Table naming 69

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‘Short names’ facility Click ‘advanced setup’ Click ‘start’ on the roadmap to get the start screen Activate the radio button ‘as with PLE3’ ‘Save & Close’ project end Thank you for your patience 70

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