2 1. Tolerance and withdrawal are the hallmarks of substance dependence.consumption.abuse.use.a. dependence.
3 2. Avery has been snorting cocaine for over a year 2. Avery has been snorting cocaine for over a year. In his attempts to achieve a high that is as euphoric as his first (which he will never be able to do), he now needs increasingly greater amounts of the drug. This demonstrates:physical dependence.withdrawl.tolerance.addiction.c. tolerance.
4 3. Dwayne has been using heroin for two years 3. Dwayne has been using heroin for two years. While visiting his mother, he decides to stop. When he stops using the drug, Dwayne experience shaking, irritability, and an inability to concentrate because he is going throughpsychological dependence.tolerance.addiction.withdrawal.d. withdrawal
5 4. Which of the following is not one of the categories of substances that cause substance-related disorders?DepressantsStimulantsHormonesHallucinogensc. Hormones
6 5. Sally is dependent on a drug that energizes her central nervous system and produces euphoria. It is likely that the drug is adepressant.stimulant.hallucinogen.painkiller.b. stimulant.
7 6. Codeine, heroin, and morphine are all _____ derived from the _____. stimulants; cannabis plantstimulants; coca plantnarcotics; opium planthallucinogens; marijuana plantc. narcotics; opium plant
8 7. Dr. Wold cautions his class about amphetamine use 7. Dr. Wold cautions his class about amphetamine use. He says, “They speed up central nervous system activity, which can account for users’ increased alertness, energy, and feelings of euphoria. They also increase appetite and sleep. However, they may be physically addictive and quickly produce tolerance.” Which part of Dr. Wold’s statement is not accurate?They speed up central nervous system activity.Their use increases alertness, energy, and feelings of euphoria.Their use increases appetite and sleep.They may be physically addictive and quickly produce tolerance.c. Their use increases appetite and sleep.
9 8. Which statement concerning crack cocaine is accurate? It is snorted through the nose.It produces a slower but more pleasant euphoria than regular cocaine.It is a form of cocaine that does not produce tolerance or withdrawal.It is a more potent form of cocaine that is smoked.d. It is a more potent form of cocaine that is smoked.
10 9. Mrs. Kowalski has cancer and glaucoma 9. Mrs. Kowalski has cancer and glaucoma. To reliever her symptoms, she uses an illegal drug that she gets from her 18-year-old grandson. The drug is most likelyphencyclidine.heroin.crack cocaine.marijuana.d. marijuana.
11 10. Stephanie met Sam at a rave 10. Stephanie met Sam at a rave. As they were talking, Sam put a drug into Stephanie’s drink when she turned her head to talk to a friend. When she woke up the next morning, she found herself in bed with Sam and learned he had raped her the night before, although she had no memory of the assault. It is most likely that the drug Sam put into Stephanie’s drink wasEcstasy.MDMA.Rohypnol.LSD.c. Rohypnol.
12 11. The most recent and complex approach to substance-related disorders Separates the psychological factors that begin the dependency process from the biological factors that maintain it.Recognizes that biological factors play a much less important role than sociocultural factors.Emphasizes the fact that they involve biological dependence.Assumes that physical and psychological factors interact throughout the development and maintenance of problems.d. Assumes that physical and psychological factors interact throughout the development and maintenance of problems.
13 12. Nathan (1988) concluded that only two personality characteristics are associated with alcohol problems:depression and antisocial behavior.anxiety and inhibition.sexuality and aggression.extraversion and hostility.a. Depression and antisocial behavior.
14 13. Marlon is physically dependent on heroin 13. Marlon is physically dependent on heroin. If he stops using the drug, he mayExperience withdrawal like a bad case of the flu.Go right back to using again because of the bodily need for the drug.Have a potentially deadly withdrawal unless supervised by a doctor.Find that Antabuse makes the withdrawal symptoms much easier to take.a. Experience withdrawal like a bad case of the flu.
15 14. Which statement accurately reflects our knowledge of the causes of drug use? One personality style – the antisocial personality – is the basis for all drug use.Physical addiction and the need to avoid withdrawal are insufficient explanations for continued narcotics use.All drug users have one thing in common: a genetic predisposition to use drugs.People start using drugs because they are forbidden; if drugs were legal, people would stop using them.b. Physical addiction and the need to avoid withdrawal are insufficient explanations for continued narcotics use.
16 15. Stanley has entered a rehabilitation facility for treatment of his addiction to barbiturates. He is immediately prevented from using the drugs and experiences agitation, restlessness, increased respiration, and insomnia. This phase of treatment is calleddetoxification.opponent processing.arousal.primary rehabilitation.a. detoxification.
17 16. Research on the Alcoholics Anonymous program suggests that it is Superior to individual psychotherapy.Associated with increased feelings of self-efficacy, active coping, and the motivation to stop drinking, which are all predictors of a positive outcome.Superior to hospitalization.Effective for 95 percent of members who remain in the program for a period of two years.b. Associated with increased feelings of self-efficacy, active coping, and the motivation to stop drinking, which are all predictors of a positive outcome.
18 17. These disorders involve a conflict between one’s actual sex and one’s psychological sense of being male or female. They are calledGender identity disorders.Dissociative identity disorders.Sexual desire disorders.Paraphilias.a. Gender identity disorders.
19 18. The definition of sexual disorders is Unique because it does not include subjective distress.Among the clearest of all forms of psychological disorders to identify.Based primarily on the statistical rarity criterion.Difficult because it is influenced by moral and legal judgments.a. Unique because it does not include subjective distress.
20 19. Which of the following best describers the central problem in determining whether or not a sexual practice is abnormal?The abnormal behavior usually does not threaten society, impair social or occupational functioning, or cause distress to the individual.While the laws are usually clear about what is illegal, people are often unaware of the laws.Acceptable sexual practices differ between cultures and historical times.The DSM-IV-TR only lists sexual disorders that are illegal, not ones that are merely unusual or abnormal.c. Acceptable sexual practices differ between cultures and historical times.
21 20. Each of the following are stages in the human sexual response cycle except resolution.dyspaurenia.appetitive.excitement.b. dyspaurenia.
22 21. According to the current psychological and scientific perspective, homosexuality is considered A normal variation in sexual behavior.A problem that needs to be fixed.Nature’s way of controlling overpopulation.The result of poor parenting.a. A normal variation in sexual behavior.
23 22. Which of the following men has secondary erectile disorder? Bill, whose inability is caused by a physiological problem he was born withCharlie, whose inability has psychological causesEmmett, who has never had an erection sufficient for intercourseDel, who used to have adequate erections but is unable to do so nowd. Del, who used to have adequate erections but is unable to do so now
24 23. Which statement about the cause of sexual dysfunctions is accurate? Recent studies indicate that biological factors may play a major role in some sexual disorders.Masters and Johnson tended to deemphasize the importance of psychological factors.Almost all of them are primary forms of the disorders.Recent studies show that biological factors only explain secondary forms of the disorders.a. Recent studies indicate that biological factors may play a major role in some sexual disorders.
25 d. Erectile dysfunction 24. Giovani has been treated with vascular surgery to increase blood flow to his genitals. When that did not cure his sexual dysfunction, he was given extra hormones. Now he is a candidate for implant surgery. What disorder is he most likely to suffer from?Premature ejaculationHypoactive desire disorderMale orgasmic disorderErectile dysfunctiond. Erectile dysfunction
26 a. Premature ejaculation 25. A therapist instructs Mrs. Weaver: “Stimulate your husband’s penis until he feels ejaculation is about to happen, then stop all stimulation for a while. Continue with stimulation and then stop, repeating until he can tolerate longer periods of stimulation without ejaculation.” What sexual dysfunction is being treated?Premature ejaculationSecondary erectile dysfunctionSexual aversion disorderVaginismusa. Premature ejaculation
27 b. hypoactive sexual desire. 26. George and Laura are seeing a sex therapist because of problems in their sex life. The therapist tells them that they are suffering from the most common complaint of couples seeking sex therapy. We could conclude from this statement that George and Laura are having problems withsexual arousal.hypoactive sexual desire.orgasm.refraction.b. hypoactive sexual desire.
28 c. Do not develop gender identity disorder as adults. 27. Jimmy is a little boy who engages in exclusively feminine play and claims he wants to grow up to be a woman. He is disgusted by his penis. Most children with gender identity conflicts such as Jimmy’sBecome transvestites.Develop gender identity disorder as adults.Do not develop gender identity disorder as adults.Engage in paraphilias as adults.c. Do not develop gender identity disorder as adults.
29 28. The biological cause of gender identity disorders probably involves Abnormal levels of sex hormones.Excessive amounts of certain neurotransmitters.Lack of development in certain brain structures.Stress-related organ dysfunction.a. Abnormal levels of sex hormones.
30 b. standard treatment for gender identity disorders. 29. To treat a gender identity disorder, Carl and his parents are involved in therapy. Carl is “educated” by the therapist about appropriate sex-role behavior, while his parents are taught behavioral principles to reinforce gender appropriate behavior and to extinguish inappropriate behavior. Carl’s therapy isbased on psychodynamic principles.standard treatment for gender identity disorders.unlikely to be helpful in treating Carl.based on a biological viewpoint of gender identity.b. standard treatment for gender identity disorders.
31 30. The sexual disorders that involve intense sexual urges regarding nonhuman objects, real or simulated suffering, or non-consenting others are calledgender identity disorders.paraphilias.dyspareunia.psychosexual disorders.c. dyspareunia.
32 31. Which of the following individuals does NOT exhibit a paraphilia? Joe, who can only become sexually aroused in the presence of women’s shoes.John, who rubs against strangers to become sexually aroused.Jake, who can only become sexually aroused when he is tied up and spanked by his partner.Jules, who becomes sexually aroused when he sees his wife in a sexy negligee.d. Jules, who becomes sexually aroused when he sees his wife in a sexy negligee.
33 32. Which statement about pedophilia is accurate? Most pedophiles are under 16 ages of age and molest children nearly their same age.In most cases, one relative or friend of the family molests one child.Most pedophiles remain unaroused when they see hard-core porno graphic films.Most pedophiles are highly intelligent and socially skilled.b. In most cases, one relative or friend of the family molests one child.
34 33. Dr. Julius says to his exhibitionist patient, “Your dreams tell us that, for you, fear of castration requires that you prove to others that you still have ap enis by exposing yourself. Once your acknowledge and overcome that fear, your need to exhibit will disappear.” Dr. Julius holds which viewpoint on the disorder?PsychodynamicCognitive-behavioralOperant conditioningHumanistic-existentiala. Psychodynamic
35 34. These disorders are disturbances in emotions that cause subjective discomfort, hinder a person’s ability to function, or both. They arepersonality disorders.emotional disorders.mood disorders.anxiety disorders.c. mood disorders.
36 35. Central to mood disorders is _____, which is characterized by intense sadness, and _____, which is characterized by elevated mood and often results in hyperactivity.mania; anxietymania; depressiondepression; anxietydepression; maniad. depression; mania
37 36. Shelly is pessimistic about her future 36. Shelly is pessimistic about her future. Her disinterest in everything around her, together with her loss of energy and motivation, make it difficult for her to cope with even the most minor of daily events. These symptoms demonstrate which domain of depression?CognitiveAffectiveBehavioralPhysiologicala. Cognitive
38 37. Professor Wong tells her class that there are four psychological domains that are used to describe depression. These include all of the following exceptaffect.behavior.cognition.dominance.d. dominance.
39 38. The cognitive symptoms of depression include crying spells that do not relate to a particular eventfeeling worthless.slowed movements.self-accusations of being incompetent.d. self-accusations of being incompetent.
40 39. All of the following are behavioral symptoms of depression except: Decreased activity levelDifficulties in concentration and decision makingSocial withdrawalPsychomotor retardationb. Difficulties in concentration and decision making
41 40. Which of the following is not a physiological symptom of depression? Disruption of normal menstrual cycleLack of interest in eating and weight lossDifficulty getting to sleep or waking up earlyPsychomotor retardationd. Psychomotor retardation
42 41. Which individual best illustrates the symptoms of mania? Jim, who has suddenly developed an aversion to sexual activityPaul, who has boundless energy and becomes angered when frustratedAlice, who is highly anxious about future eventsEsther, whose energy level is so low that she has become withdrawn from other peopleb. Paul, who has boundless energy and becomes angered when frustrated
43 42. Winnie exhibits the essential feature of bipolar disorder, which is depressed mood.chronic fatigue.changing moods from happy to serious.one or more manic or hypomanic episodes.d. One or more manic or hypomanic episodes.
44 43. In the DSM-IV-TR, the mood disorders are divided into two major subcategories: depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.bipolar I and bipolar II.mild and severe.major depression and dysthymic disorder.a. depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
45 44. Ronnie has recurrent major depressive episodes that alternate with hypomania. According to the DSM-IV-TR, Ronnie should be diagnosed withbipolar Ibipolar IIcyclothymia.major depressive disorder not otherwise specified.b. bipolar II
46 45. Which event is least likely to happen? Major depressive episodes that do not alternate with any manic episodesManic episodes that do not alternate with depressive episodesMajor depression that alternates with manic episodesMajor depressive episodes that alternate with hyupomaniab. Manic episodes that do not alternate with depressive episodes
47 46. Which of the following are key concepts in the behavioral explanation of depression? incomplete mourning and unexpressed angerirrational thinking and poor logicfew reinforcers and poor social skillslack of imagination and self-absorptionc. few reinforcers and poor social skills
48 47. Negative thoughts, low self-esteem, and errors in thinking are all concepts central to which theory of depression?BiologicalCognitiveOperantPsychodynamicb. Cognitive
49 48. Which quote best illustrates what Seligman means by learned helplessness? “Nothing I do will ever improve my situation.”“Everyone can dance well except me.”“I can’t remember anything good ever happening to me.”“Many of the stresses in my life I brought on myself.”a. “Nothing I do will ever improve my situation.”
50 49. Individuals from which culture are especially likely to present bodily complaints when they are depressed?Chinese AmericanIrish AmericanAmerican IndianItalian Americana. Chinese American
51 50. Researchers who believe that genetic factors are responsible for mood disorders are likely to be interested in which substances in the brain?ProteinsHormonesCatecholaminesGlial cellsc. Catecholamines