Presentation on theme: "BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II"— Presentation transcript:
1 BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II Session 3: Phonology
2 Contact options & handing in the portfolio: A mail box across the hall (A10)phoneAll information can be found on my homepage:
3 LiteratureFromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hyams, N. (2006). An Introduction to Language. 8th ed. Wadsworth.Roach, P. (2000). English Phonetics & Phonology – A Practical Course. 3rd ed. Cambridge: CUP.Ladefoged, P. (2006). A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed.Hanke, J. & Intemann, F. (2000). The Interactive Introduction to Linguistics. CD ROM. Version 2.0. München: Hueber.See Handapparat for further introductory books
4 IPA Font Download fonts to use for transcription in portfolio: Doulos SIL Font:Download/ install to your fonts folderChoose font in your text documentInsert symbols (or define a key combination as short cut)
18 Minimal Pairs Definition: Two words with different meanings that differ only in one phoneme in the same position in each word.e.g. beat vs. meathere vs. dearmad vs. man/biːt/ /miːt//hiːr/ /diːr//mæd/ /mæn/
19 Your Turn!The following sets of minimal pairs show that English /p/ and /b/ contrast in initial, medial, and final positions.Initial Medial Finalpit/ bit rapid/ rabbit cap/ cabFind similar sets of minimal pairs for each pair of consonants given.a. /k/ - /ɡ/ d. /b/ - /v/ g. /s/ - /ʃ/b. /m/ - /n/ e. /b/ - /m/ h. /ʧ/ - /ʤ/c. /l/ - /r/ f. /p/ - /f/ i. /s/ - /z/Fromkin, Rodman & Hymes. Ch.7. Exercise 1.
20 Stressing out about stress? primary stress: / ˈ / as in /əˈbaʊt/, /ˈbeɪsɪk/, /bəˈnænɑ/secondary stress: /ˌ /as in /ˌlɪŋˈɡwɪs.tɪks/, /ˈaɪsˌkɹiːm/
21 Connected Speech Pronunciation of individual words changes in context Depending on the sentence stress, some words are „weakened“ (so-called weak forms)Typically function words
23 The North Wind & the SunThe North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.
24 Your Turn!Fill in the blanks (weak forms) in either British or American English. Exercise from Roach, Ch.12
25 „The Walrus and the Carpenter“ by Lewis Carroll There is one major error in each transcription line that is an impossible pronunciation for any American English speaker.The error may consist of an extra symbol, a missing symbol, or a wrong symbol in the word.Note that the phonetic given is a narrow transcription; aspiration is marked, as is the nasalization of vowels. This is to illustrate a detailed transcription.However, none of the errors involve aspiration or nasalization of vowels.Write the word in which the error occurs in the correct phonetic transcription.Fromkin, Rodman & Hymes. Ch.6. Exercise 4.
26 ðǝ tʰajm hæz cʌm [kʰʌm] ðǝ wɔlrǝs sed tʰu tʰɔlk ǝv mɛni θĩŋz „The Walrus and the Carpenter“ by Lewis Carrollðǝ tʰajm hæz cʌm [kʰʌm]ðǝ wɔlrǝs sedtʰu tʰɔlk ǝv mɛni θĩŋzǝv ʃuz ãnd ʃɪpsænd silĩŋ wæxǝv kʰæbǝɡǝz ænd kʰĩŋzænd wɛθǝr pʰɪɡz hæv wĩŋz