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BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II Session 3: Phonology.

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Presentation on theme: "BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II Session 3: Phonology."— Presentation transcript:

1 BM3 Introduction to English Linguistics Part II Session 3: Phonology

2 Contact options & handing in the portfolio: A mail box across the hall (A10) phone All information can be found on my homepage:

3 Literature Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hyams, N. (2006). An Introduction to Language. 8th ed. Wadsworth. Roach, P. (2000). English Phonetics & Phonology – A Practical Course. 3rd ed. Cambridge: CUP. Ladefoged, P. (2006). A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed. Hanke, J. & Intemann, F. (2000). The Interactive Introduction to Linguistics. CD ROM. Version 2.0. München: Hueber. See Handapparat for further introductory books

4 IPA Font Download fonts to use for transcription in portfolio:  Doulos SIL Font: –Download/ install to your fonts folder –Choose font in your text document –Insert symbols (or define a key combination as short cut)

5 Overview: Where are we? Phonetics/ Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Applied Linguistics (Historical Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Textlinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, Computational Linguistics, …) major areas of (theoretical) linguistics

6 Phonetic Description of Sounds Phonation Place of articulation Manner of articulation Lip rounding

7 Places of Articulation: the Vocal Tract

8 Places of Articulation: the Tongue Center

9 Bilabial ‘‘Stops‘‘: nasal (velum lowered) vs. oral (velum raised) bilabial nasalbilabial plosives

10 Places of Articulation: Consonantal Chart

11 International Phonetics Association

12 Places of Articulation: Vowels

13 Diphthongs I: Received Pronunciation (RP) closing centering

14 Diphthongs II: American English

15 Phonetics vs. Phonology

16 Phonemes, Phones, & Allophones Phoneme Head term Family of speech sounds Allophones / [phone1] [phone2] [phone3]

17 Phonemes, Phones, & Allophones Phoneme Allophones / t / [t ʰ ] [ t] [t ʷ ] [t ˡ ]

18 Minimal Pairs Definition: Two words with different meanings that differ only in one phoneme in the same position in each word. e.g. beat vs. meat here vs. dear mad vs. man /bi ː t/ /mi ː t/ /hi ː r/ /di ː r/ /mæd/ /mæn/

19 Your Turn! The following sets of minimal pairs show that English /p/ and /b/ contrast in initial, medial, and final positions. InitialMedialFinal pit/ bitrapid/ rabbitcap/ cab Find similar sets of minimal pairs for each pair of consonants given. a. /k/ - / ɡ /d. /b/ - /v/g. /s/ - / ʃ / b. /m/ - /n/e. /b/ - /m/h. / ʧ / - / ʤ / c. /l/ - /r/f. /p/ - /f/i. /s/ - /z/ Fromkin, Rodman & Hymes. Ch.7. Exercise 1.

20 Stressing out about stress? primary stress: / ˈ / as in /ə ˈ ba ʊ t/, / ˈ be ɪ s ɪ k/, /bə ˈ næn ɑ / secondary stress: / ˌ / as in / ˌ l ɪ ŋ  ˈɡ w ɪ s.t ɪ ks/, / ˈ a ɪ s ˌ k ɹ i ː m/

21 Connected Speech Pronunciation of individual words changes in context Depending on the sentence stress, some words are „weakened“ (so-called weak forms) Typically function words

22 The North Wind & the Sun ðə ˈ n ɔɹ θ ˌ w ɪ nd ən ə ˈ s ʌ n w ɚ d ɪ s ˈ pju ɾɪ ŋ ˈ w ɪ t ʃ wəz ðə ˈ st ɹɑː ŋg ɚ, w ɛ n ə ˈ t ɹ ævl ɚ ˌ ke ɪ m ə ˈ l ɑː ŋ ˈɹ æpt ɪ n ə ˈ w ɔɹ m ˈ klo ʊ k. ðe ɪ ə ˈ g ɹ i ː d ðət ðə ˈ w ʌ n hu ˈ f ɚ st sək ˈ si ː dəd ɪ n ˈ me ɪ k ɪ ŋ ðə ˈ t ɹ ævl ɚ ˈ te ɪ k ɪ z ˈ klo ʊ k ˌɑ f ʃʊ d bi kən ˈ s ɪ d ɚ d ˈ st ɹɑː ŋg ɚ ðən ð ɪ ˈʌ ð ɚ. ð ɛ n ðə ˈ n ɔɹ θ ˌ w ɪ nd ˈ blu ː əz ˈ h ɑɹ d əz hi ˈ k ʊ d, bət ðə ˈ m ɔɹ hi ˈ blu ː ðə ˈ m ɔɹ ˈ klo ʊ sli d ɪ d ðə ˈ t ɹ ævl ɚ ˈ fo ʊ ld h ɪ z ˈ klo ʊ k ə ˈɹ a ʊ nd ɪ m; ˌ æn ət ˈ læst ðə ˈ n ɔɹ θ ˌ w ɪ nd ˌ ge ɪ v ˈʌ p ði ə ˈ t ɛ mpt. ˈ ð ɛ n ðə ˈ s ʌ n ˈʃ a ɪ nd ˌ a ʊ t ˈ w ɔɹ mli ənd ɪˈ mi ː diətli ðə ˈ t ɹ ævl ɚ ˈ t ʊ k ˌɑ f ɪ z klo ʊ k. ən ˈ so ðə ˈ n ɔɹ θ ˌ w ɪ nd wəz ə ˈ bla ɪ d ʒ t ɪ kən ˈ f ɛ s ðət ðə ˈ s ʌ n wəz ðə ˈ st ɹɑ ŋg ɚ əv ðə ˈ tu ː.

23 The North Wind & the Sun The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.

24 Your Turn! Fill in the blanks (weak forms) in either British or American English. Exercise from Roach, Ch.12

25 There is one major error in each transcription line that is an impossible pronunciation for any American English speaker. The error may consist of an extra symbol, a missing symbol, or a wrong symbol in the word. Note that the phonetic given is a narrow transcription; aspiration is marked, as is the nasalization of vowels. This is to illustrate a detailed transcription. However, none of the errors involve aspiration or nasalization of vowels. Write the word in which the error occurs in the correct phonetic transcription. „The Walrus and the Carpenter“ by Lewis Carroll Fromkin, Rodman & Hymes. Ch.6. Exercise 4.

26 a.ð ǝ t ʰ ajm hæz c ʌ m [k ʰʌ m] b.ð ǝ w ɔ lr ǝ s sed c.t ʰ u t ʰɔ lk ǝ v m ɛ ni θĩŋz d. ǝ v ʃ uz ãnd ʃɪ ps e.ænd silĩŋ wæx f. ǝ v k ʰ æb ǝɡǝ z ænd k ʰ ĩŋz g.ænd w ɛ θ ǝ r p ʰɪɡ z hæv wĩŋz „The Walrus and the Carpenter“ by Lewis Carroll

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