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Tree Growth Unit 10. Objectives Learn how woody plants grow Know where growth occurs in a tree Understand the relationship of tree ring growth and environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "Tree Growth Unit 10. Objectives Learn how woody plants grow Know where growth occurs in a tree Understand the relationship of tree ring growth and environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tree Growth Unit 10

2 Objectives Learn how woody plants grow Know where growth occurs in a tree Understand the relationship of tree ring growth and environmental conditions Describe limiting factors for tree GROWTH

3 Question If I were to hammer a nail into a tree 3 feet off the ground and the tree grows 1foot per year. In 25years how far off the ground will the nail be?

4 How Does A Tree Grow MERISTEM tissue in the Bud--crown Root tips--roots Cambium--trunk From the MSU AGRSCIENCE WEB PAGE

5 Roots Apical MERISTEM protected by a root cap (cells divide and differentiate) Permanent rootsanchorage Feeder roots Root hairswater and nutrient absorption

6 Roots Absorbing roots are concentrated in the top 6-18 inches of soil (water, nutrients and oxygen) Roots cover 4 to 7 times the area of the crown From the MSU AGRSCIENCE WEB PAGE

7 Tree Root Classes Heart root (red oak, honey locust, basswood, pines) Tap root (hickory, walnut, butternut, white oak and hornbeam) Flat root (birch, fir, spruce, sugar maple, cottonwood and silver maple) From the Iowa State University Forestry Extension http://www.ag.iastate.edu/departments/forestry/ext/pubs/F-308.pdf

8 Trunk Growth in diameter of plants is due to cell division in the cambium Located just under the bark Insidexylem –conducts water and nutrients Outsidephloemtransports sugars, amino acids, vitamins, hormones and stored food

9 Heartwood Xylem Cambium Phloem Outer Bark From the MSU AGRSCIENCE WEB PAGE *Sapwood

10 From the MSU AGRSCIENCE WEB PAGE

11 From the University of Georgia School of Forestry http://www.forestry.uga.edu/warnell/service/library/index.php3?docID+172

12 From the MSU AGRSCIENCE WEB PAGE

13 Wood Types Spring wood (early wood) Summer wood (late wood) Heart woodold xylem tissue (provides structure and infection resistance) Sapwoodliving xylem active in fluid transport Phloeminner bark nutrient transport, outer barkdead phloem

14 Factors Affecting Ring Growth From the University of Georgia School of Forestry http://www.forestry.uga.edu/warnell/service/library/index.php3?docID+172

15 Crown Budsapical MERISTEM 3 types Mixedshootsleaves and or flowers Leaf buds Shoot buds Terminal buds--apex of MERISTEM (trunk) Lateral budsbranches and flowers From: Iowa State University Forestry Extension Notes F-308 www.ag.iastate.edu/departments/forestry/ext/pubs/F-308.pdf

16 Types Of Buds Fixed growththe number of leaves and nodes for next year is fixed by this years resource availability (length of nodes is dependent on next years conditions (pine, oaks hickory) Free growthbuds containing leaves are preformed but additional leaves can be added depending on that years CONDITONS (cottonwood, willow, and silver maple)

17 Tree Form EXCURRENTstrong apical dominance (conicalpines) DECURRENTlack of strong apical dominancedeliquescent (large spreading crowns ) From: Iowa State University Forestry Extension Notes F-308 www.ag.iastate.edu/departments/forestry/ext/pubs/F-308.pdf

18 What Have We Learned Today Learned tree growth occurs in Meristem tissue of Roots (tip), trunk (cambium) and crown (buds) (Down, Out and Up) Water is the most restrictive factor affecting tree growth (Light, Temperature and Relative humidity)


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