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Feeding and Managing Cows on High Grain Diets Steve Paisley UW Extension Beef Specialist.

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Presentation on theme: "Feeding and Managing Cows on High Grain Diets Steve Paisley UW Extension Beef Specialist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feeding and Managing Cows on High Grain Diets Steve Paisley UW Extension Beef Specialist

2 Historical Example of Limit-Feeding Winter Rations

3 Limit-Feed?Feed Hay?

4 CURSE Cull the herd rigorously Use alternative feeds Re-sort, analyze, and Ration hay Substituting grain for our forages Early weaning Gerry Kuhl, KSU

5 Energy Value of Corn vs Hay Dry, shelled corn: 2.60 / bu = $.046 / lb = $93/ton As-fed 86% DM, 1.02 Mcals/lb $.046 ÷.86 = $.054 / lb DM $.054 ÷ 1.02 Mcal/lb = $.053 / Mcal NEm Average Hay typically =.55 Mcal / lb, so: an equivalent hay price would have to be: $.053 X.55 = $.029 / lb DM $.029 X.88 = $.0256 / lb As-fed = $51 / ton

6 Relative price/ton for native hay Corn,Purchase price for Soybean Meal, $/ton $/bu$140$160$180$200$220$240$260$280$300 $1.4040.3242.6244.9347.2449.5451.8554.1556.4658.77 $1.6043.7746.0848.3850.6952.9955.3057.6159.9162.22 $1.8047.2249.5351.8454.1456.4558.7561.0663.3765.67 $2.0050.6852.9855.2957.6059.9062.2164.5166.8269.13 $2.2054.1356.4458.7461.0563.3665.6667.9770.2772.58 $2.4057.5859.8962.2064.5066.8169.1171.4273.7376.03 $2.6061.0463.3465.6567.9670.2672.5774.8777.1879.49 $2.8064.4966.8069.1071.4173.7276.0278.3380.6382.94 $3.0067.9570.2572.5674.8677.1779.4881.7884.0986.39 Formula used: 1 lb of 12% native hay =.4835 lb corn +.1153 lb SBM

7 Dried Corn Gluten Feed, $/ton Price comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.94 Mcal/lb) and CP (25%) Formula used: 1 lb of CGF =.57 lb corn +.387 lb SBM

8 Distillers Dried Grains + Solubles, $/ton Price comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.99 Mcal/lb) and CP (25%) Formula used: 1 lb of DDGS =.629 lb corn +. 375 lb SBM

9 Wheat Midds, $/ton Price comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.85 Mcal/lb) and CP (18.4%) Formula used: 1 lb of Midds =.609 lb corn +.246 lb SBM

10 Beet Pulp, $/ton Price comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.81 Mcal/lb) and CP (11%): 25% Dry Matter Formula used: (DM Basis) 1 lb of beet pulp =.709 lb corn +.091 lb SBM

11 Alternative Roughages: Stalks/Stover Ammoniated straw Sudan Hays Low quality forages

12 Limit-Fed Wintering Ration Studies:

13 Limit-feeding corn to gestating beef cows, Year 1 Loerch, 1996 ab Means differ (P<.05) Hay $80/ton, Corn $2.00/bu Supp $150/ton * 36% Protein supplement with 3.6% Ca and 1% Phos (As-fed) ** Trial was conducted from November through Mid-April

14 Limit-feeding corn to gestating beef cows, Year 2 Loerch, 1996 ab Means differ (P<.05) Hay $80/ton, Corn $2.00/bu, Supp $150/ton * 36% Supp. with 3.6% Ca, 1% Phos (As-fed) 60 g/lb Monensin ** Trial was conducted from November through Mid-April

15 Limit-feeding corn to gestating beef cows, Year 3 Loerch, 1996 ab Means differ (P<.05) ; cd Means differ (P<.08) Hay $80/ton, Corn $2.00/bu, Supp $150/ton * 36% Protein supplement with 3.6% Ca and 1% Phos (As-fed) ** Trial was conducted from November through Mid-April

16 Whole shelled corn vs rolled in limit-fed diets Tjardes et al.1998 Cattle were fed for 62 days (between calving and breeding)

17 UW Limit-fed Wintering Diet 3.70 lbs.9 lbsProtein Supp. 11 lbs14 lbsRolled Corn 10 lbs Millet Hay High FatControl Fat Supp. - - % CP % TDN 10.28 75.36 9.39 75.15

18 UW Limit-fed Cow Condition Breeding wt, BCS avg 60 d postpartum Mid - weight, BCS avg 19 d postpartum 1333 (5.05)1333 (5.08)Initial wt, BCS 60 d prior to calving High FatControl 1330 (5.49) 1274 (5.36)

19 Calf Performance, UW Study ItemControlAdded FatSEMP-Value Birth Wt. 91.4 92.91.660.52 Vigor a 1.13 1.210.060.30 Rectal Temp., °F b 101.72 101.670.090.68 a Vigor score at calving: 1 = alert vigorous, active; 2 = alert, able to stand; 3 = lethargic, unable to stand; 4 = dead at birth. b Calf rectal temperature taken within 24 h after birth.

20 UW Estrous Synchronization 60 d Postpartum EAZI-BREED  CIDR  1 Shot PGF 2  Day 13 Day 0 Insert CIDR Day 7 Remove CIDR PGF 2  Injection Heat Detect and Breed CIDR

21 Response to Synchronization 62.09% 1st Service 75 d 67.32% 1st Service 30 d 93.46% Heat Detection All Cows (72.03%)

22 Feeding and Management

23 Occasionally, limiting intake may be a good thing!!

24 Rough guidelines for limit-fed rations based on corn grain OSU Factsheet F-3028

25 What to Expect Aggressive behavior at the bunk Consume ration in as little as 20 to 30 minutes Lots of “free time” to pace, crib Takes 1 to 2 weeks to “adapt” Increased roughage may help Variation in weight gains/losses? Hay/concentrate ratio Bunk Space?

26 Herd Management Consider sorting herd into 2 - 3 groups: Bred Yearlings Young and Thin cows Mature Cows in Good Condition Consider limit-feeding just one group Watch cattle closely May not work for all cows Monitor condition of cows and adjust accordingly

27 Feed Management Work up to limit-fed diet slowly Start with 3-4 lb grain plus free choice hay Increase grain by no more than 1 lb/day When grain level is reached, begin removing hay Ionophores very beneficial Consistent, accurate feeding Good management essential

28 Balance separately for gestation and lactation High Calcium (feedlot) mineral Vitamin A? Whole shelled vs ground corn? Feed Management

29 Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: Corn Stage of Prod., 1200 lb cow Feed, lb as-fedLast 1/3 Preg.Early Lactation Prairie Hay9.0 Rolled Corn6.010.0 Soybean Meal1.5 3.0 Limestone.1.2 DDGS Beet Pulp Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP

30 Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: DDGS Stage of Prod., 1200 lb cow Feed, lb as-fedLast 1/3 Preg.Early Lactation Prairie Hay9.0 Rolled Corn3.05.0 Soybean Meal Limestone.15.2 Dry DDGS4.07.0 Beet Pulp Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP

31 Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: Beet Pulp Stage of Prod., 1200 lb cow Feed, lb as-fedLast 1/3 Preg.Early Lactation Prairie Hay9.0 Rolled Corn2.06.0 Soybean Meal1.02.5 Limestone/Dical - /.1.05 /.1 Dry DDGS Beet Pulp18.0 Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP Beet Pulp - 25% Dry Matter

32 Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: Beet Pulp + DDGS Stage of Prod., 1200 lb cow Feed, lb as-fedLast 1/3 Preg.Early Lactation Prairie Hay 9.0 Rolled Corn Soybean Meal Limestone/Dical - /.05.1 / - Dry DDGS 2.5 6.5 Beet Pulp (25%DM) 19.024.0 Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP Beet Pulp - 17% Dry Matter

33 Additonal Questions Birth weights of calves Birth weights appear to be slightly increased, but calving difficulty is not affected Re-breeding No reported effect on subsequent re- breeding rates

34 Final thoughts Cattle will take at least 2 wks to adjust Work cattle up slowly Feed extra hay when daily feeding is late/missed

35 Final thoughts Consider limit-feeding only part of the herd Sort cattle into groups Balance rations separately for late gestation and lactation Safety of ration: Long-stemmed vs ground hay ionophore processing and amount of grain

36 Choose the Feeding Program That Fits Your Operation

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