Presentation on theme: "THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION I. NEO-FUNCTIONALISM II. LIBERAL INTERGOVERNMENTALISM III. MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE"— Presentation transcript:
THEORIES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION I. NEO-FUNCTIONALISM II. LIBERAL INTERGOVERNMENTALISM III. MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE
COMPARING THE THEORIES They have contrasting visions of European integration. First, they differ in what they explain. Second, they differ in how they explain European integration.
I. Neo-functionalism Ernst Haas, The Uniting of Europe What needs to be explained? supranationalism “States do not have the power to stop decisions. Supranationalism thus takes interstate relations beyond co-operation into integration and involves states working with one another in a manner that does not allow them to retain complete control over developments. That is, states may often be obliged to do things against their preferences and their will because they do not haves some loss of national sovereignty.” (Nugent 1999, 502)
WHAT IS SUPRANATIONAL ABOUT THE EU? The Commission as agenda setter. Qualified Majority Voting in the Council of Ministers. European Parliament role in decision-making: e.g. assent and co-decision procedures. The strength and status of EU law. Ultimately, EU law takes precedence over national law.
How does neo-functionalism explain this? a) Functional spillover Integration in one policy area creates pressures for integration in related policy areas. Example: The creation of a Single Market produced pressures for monetary integration.
b) Political spillover Elites learn that integration works. Supranational actors gain authority. A European identity is gradually created.
II. Liberal Intergovernmentalism Andrew Moravcsik, The Choice for Europe What needs to be explained? Why governments make international deals. Intergovernmentalism: “Arrangements whereby nation states, in situations and conditions they can control, co- operate with one another on matters of common interest. The existence of control, which allows all participating states to decide the extent and nature of this co- operation, means that national sovereignty is not undermined.” (Nugent 1999, 502)
WHAT IS INTERGOVERNMENTAL ABOUT THE EU? Major areas of policy, including foreign affairs, defense, fiscal policy, education, health, JHA, are still decided largely at the national level. Major decisions concerning the general direction and policy priorities of the EU are taken by the European Council. Important decisions on EU legislation require unanimity in the Council of Ministers.
How does liberal intergovernmentalism explain this? Two separate arenas: a) The international level National governments create international organizations in order to gain joint benefits. b) The national level Within states, producer groups determine government policy.
III. Multi-level Governance Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks, Multi-level Governance and European Integration, What needs to be explained? Why authority has shifted away from central government -- up to the European level and down to regions. “ MLG analysis amounts to the claim that the EU has become a polity where authority is dispersed between levels of governance...MLG does not maintain that states are unimportant.” (Rosamond )
a) So policy making has shifted to the EU level. b) But it has also shifted from central states to their regions.
Decentralizing decision making in Europe BRITAINScottish, Welsh parliaments, 1997 FRANCEElected regional governments, 1982 GERMANYFederal constitution, 1949 ITALYElected regional governments, Strengthened, SPAINAutonomous regions, Strengthened, 1993; 1998.
a) So policy making has shifted to the EU level. b) But it has also shifted from central states to their regions. c) AND Subnational actors operate directly at the European level
>150 regions and localities are represented directly in Brussels Burgenland Verbindungsbüro Representation of the Länder Land Kärnten Verbindungsbüro Land Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Verbindungsbüro Österreichischer Städtebund Land Salzburg Verbindungsbüro Steiermark Büro Vienna Business Promotion Fund City of Vienna Business Promotion Fund Ministry of the Flemish Community Beobachter der Länder Informationsbüro Baden-Württemberg Europabüro der Bayerischen Kommunen Verbindungsbüro der Freien Hansestadt Bremen Verbindungsbüro Niedersachsen Vertretung Nordrhein Westfalen Vertretung Rheinland-Pfalz Verbindungsbüro Saarland Informationsbüro Sachsen Verbindungsbüro Sachsen-Anhalt Aalborg E.U. Office Aalborg Development Agency Aarhus E.U. Office Association of Danish County Councils Copenhagen City Eura Ringkjøbing Amt A/S Frederiksborg E.U. Office Odense Denmark E.U. Office South Denmark Instituto de Fomento de Andalucia Gobierno de Aragón Oficina de Asuntos Europeos del Principado de Asturias Deputación de Barcelona Junta de Castilla y León Patronat Catala Pro Europa Fundación Galicia Europa Instituto de Fomento de la Region de Murcia Delegación del Globierno de Navarre Euskadiren Ordekaritza (Delegación del Pais Vasco) Bureau Alsace Centre Atlantique Antenne de la Collectivité Territoiale de Corse Association de la Coopération entre la Bretagne et les Pays de la Loire Association des Régions Françaises du Grand Est EURODOM Délégation de la Région Île de France Bureau de la Délégation Lorraine Antenne Basse-Normandie Région Haute-Normandie Conseil Régional de Picardie Délégation Générale de la Région Rhône-Alpes Association Grand Sud Region of Epirus Regione Lazio Guinta Regionale Regione Liguria Ufficio di Bruxelles Regione Toscana Unioncamere Piemonte Veneto Dublin European Representative Office NASC – West Ireland EU Liaison Oost Nederland Regio Randstad Sweden East Sweden Mid-Sweden North Sweden South Sweden West Sweden Helsinki Office in Brussels Association of Finnish Local Authorities Birmingham and West Midlands Brussels Office Cheshire Essex County Council Lancashire Enterprises Local Government International Bureau Association of London Government Association of Greater Manchester Authorities Merseyside Brussels Office East Midlands Regional European Office Reading and Thames Valley West of England in Europe Scotland Europa Scottish Executive Convention of Scottish Local Authorities West of Scotland European Consortium Wales European Centre Yorkshire and Humberside European Office
Why has authority shifted away from central states? Three possible answers: 1) Government leaders may want to shift authority out of their own hands. E.g. monetary policy They can tie the hands of their successors to a particular policy.
2) Government leaders may decide to shift authority away from the central state because of political pressure. E.g. minority nationalism (in Scotland, Wales, the Basque County and Catalonia). 3) Government leaders lose control. Look at the EU and the power of the European Parliament, Or unanimity voting in the Council of Ministers.