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End Show Slide 1 of 23 Chemistry 22.3. End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 23 22.3 Isomers The retinal molecule in the rod and cone.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 23 Chemistry 22.3. End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 23 22.3 Isomers The retinal molecule in the rod and cone."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 23 Chemistry 22.3

2 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 23 22.3 Isomers The retinal molecule in the rod and cone cells of your eye has a hydrocarbon skeleton. When light strikes a cell containing retinal, it causes a change in the three- dimensional structure of the retinal molecule. The structures before and after the light strikes are examples of isomers. You will study different types of isomers.

3 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Isomers > Slide 3 of 23 22.3 Structural Isomers How do the properties of structural isomers differ?

4 End Show Slide 4 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Structural Isomers Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures are called isomers. Structural isomers differ in physical properties such as boiling point and melting point. They also have different chemical reactivities.

5 End Show Slide 5 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Structural Isomers Structural isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula, but the atoms are joined together in a different order.

6 End Show Slide 6 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Structural Isomers Both butane and 2-methylpropane have the molecular formula C 4 H 10. The atoms in their molecules are arranged in a different order, so they are structural isomers.

7 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Isomers > Slide 7 of 23 22.3 Stereoisomers What are the two types of stereoisomers?

8 End Show Slide 8 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Stereoisomers Two types of stereoisomers are geometric isomers and optical isomers. Stereoisomers are molecules in which the atoms are joined in the same order, but the positions of the atoms in space are different.

9 End Show Slide 9 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Stereoisomers Geometric Isomers Geometric isomers have atoms joined in the same order, but differ in the orientation of groups around a double bond.

10 End Show Slide 10 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Stereoisomers In the trans configuration, the methyl groups are on opposite sides of the double bond. In the cis configuration, the methyl groups are on the same side of the double bond.

11 End Show Slide 11 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Stereoisomers There is a trans and a cis configuration of 2- butene because a methyl group is attached to each carbon of the double bond.

12 End Show Slide 12 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Stereoisomers

13 End Show Slide 13 of 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 22.3 Isomers > Stereoisomers Optical Isomers A carbon with four different atoms or groups attached is an asymmetric carbon. Pairs of molecules that differ only in the way that four different groups are arranged around a central carbon atom are called optical isomers.

14 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 14 of 23 Isomers > Stereoisomers Simulation 28 Play the isomer game of “Pick the Pairs.”

15 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 15 of 23 End Show

16 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 16 of 23 End Show

17 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 17 of 23 End Show

18 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 18 of 23 End Show Practice Problems for Conceptual Problem 22.4 Problem Solving 22.18 Solve Problem 18 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

19 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 19 of 23 Section Quiz -or- Continue to: Launch: Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 22.3 Section Quiz 22.3.

20 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 20 of 23 End Show 22.3 Section Quiz 1.Structural isomers have different properties because they have a.a different number of bonds. b.different types of bonds. c.different substituents. d.a different order of atoms.

21 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 21 of 23 End Show 22.3 Section Quiz 2 Substituent groups on opposite sides of a double bond are said to be in the _______ configuration. If the groups are on the same side of the bond, then they are in the _______ configuration. a.cis, trans b.trans, cis c.trans, iso d.stereo, cis

22 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 22 of 23 End Show 22.3 Section Quiz 3. Geometric isomers have different arrangements of atoms a.and different molecular formulas. b.but only single bonds. c.around an asymetric carbon. d.around a double bond.

23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 23 of 23 End Show 22.3 Section Quiz 4. A carbon atom that has four different substituents always forms a.an optical isomer. b.a saturated hydrocarbon. c.a geometric isomer. d.an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

24 END OF SHOW


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