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Basic Statistics: The Three Things You Need to Know In Order to Complete Your Project
Edward P. Sloan, MD, MPH Associate Professor Dept of Emergency Medicine University of Illinois College of Medicine Chicago, IL
Attending Physician Emergency Medicine University of Illinois Hospital Our Lady of the Resurrection Medical Center
Overview Global Objectives Answer clinical questions Learn minimal statistics Get it done
Overview Session Objectives Know what question to ask Review stats needed to answer question Collect data for stat analysis
Three Things to Know What measurement? What question? How to report your results
Other Things to Know What data is needed? Basic statistical tests Nothing else
Two Measurements Proportion Mean
Two Questions What is the number? Do two groups differ?
Proportion Measurement What % of patients had some outcome? Divides a group into subgroups
Mean Measurement Describes a characteristic of a patient group Provides an overview
What is the Number? Describes one group Tells a story No comparisons
What #? Confidence Interval Can we believe the results? Was the process acceptable? Are the results reproducible?
Confidence Interval 95% CI Provides a range The “real” number is in this range
Do Two Groups Differ? Compares two groups Attempts to detect differences Relates outcomes to different interventions
Groups Differ? Hypothesis Test Null hypothesis, H o Alternate hypothesis, H A Are the groups the same (H o ) or different (H A )?
Hypothesis Test We reject H o The groups aren’t the same We then accept that they differ
Using Statistics 1)Pick your number type (Proportion or mean) 2)Decide what you will do (Describe or compare) (CI or hypothesis test) 3)Do the stat analysis 4)Report the results
Reporting Proportions 95% Confidence Interval In patients with T-wave inversion on their ED EKG, 29 (+ 3)% will develop an AMI during hospitalization (95% CI 26-32%).
Reporting Proportions: Hypothesis Test There was a two-fold greater 5 year survival rate in drug A patients vs. drug B patients (30% vs. 15%, p<.001)
Reporting Means: 95% Confidence Interval The mean CPK-MB in ED T-wave inversion AMI patients was (95% CI=9-15).
Reporting Means: Hypothesis Test Drug A patients had a 50% greater survival time than that of drug B patients ( years vs years, p<.001).
Statistics: Proportions Chi-square Fisher’s Exact test
Statistics: Means Students’s t-test ANOVA
Key Concepts: Design Know your number Know what question you’ll do Know how you will report results
Key Concepts: Data Collection Data to describe groups Data to compare groups Data to provide results Data to study confounding
Key Concepts: Data Analysis Simple data elements Ability to do 2x2 analysis Ability to do simple regression
Key Concepts: Reporting Consistent statements Straightforward p-value is less important
Statistics: Reporting Results Differences in outcome Absolute vs. Relative Mortality 25% to 20% –5% absolute decrease –20% relative decrease
Statistics: Reporting Results Odds ratios Relative risk Regression analysis What variables predict outcome?
Example: 2x2 Analysis Risk variable Outcome measure OR, 95% CI p-value Conclusion
Conclusions Know baseline proportions/means Project your results Know what data is needed Collect the data Analyze via 2x2 tables
Recommendations Keep it simple Follow our directions completely
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