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How To Make Biological Molecules Adapted from Kim Fogia and David Knuffke work.

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Presentation on theme: "How To Make Biological Molecules Adapted from Kim Fogia and David Knuffke work."— Presentation transcript:


2 How To Make Biological Molecules Adapted from Kim Fogia and David Knuffke work

3 H2OH2O HO H HH How to build a polymer Synthesis – joins monomers by “taking” H 2 O out one monomer donates OH – other monomer donates H + together these form H 2 O – requires energy & enzymes enzyme Dehydration synthesis Condensation reaction

4 H2OH2O HOH H H How to break down a polymer Digestion – use H 2 O to breakdown polymers reverse of dehydration synthesis cleave off one monomer at a time H 2 O is split into H + and OH – – H + & OH – attach to ends – requires enzymes – releases energy Hydrolysis Digestion enzyme

5 Dehydration and Hydrolysis hMtM&feature=related hMtM&feature=related

6 OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Carbohydrates energy molecules

7 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O Ratio of 1:2:1 Function: – energy – energy storage – raw materials – structural materials Monomer: sugars ex: sugars, starch, cellulose sugar C 6 H 12 O 6 (CH 2 O) x

8 Sugars Most names for sugars end in -ose Classified by number of carbons – 6C = hexose (glucose) – 5C = pentose (ribose) – 3C = triose (glyceraldehyde) OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Glucose H OH HO O H H H Ribose CH 2 OH Glyceraldehyde H H H H OH O C C C 653

9 Functional groups determine function carbonyl ketone aldehyde carbonyl

10 Sugar structure 5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution Carbons are numbered

11 Numbered carbons C CC C C C 1' 2'3' 4' 5' 6' O energy stored in C-C bonds

12 Simple & complex sugars Monosaccharides – simple 1 monomer sugars – glucose Disaccharides – 2 monomers – sucrose Polysaccharides – large polymers – starch OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O Glucose

13 main source of energy Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 Sources: nectar, sap, blood Glucose vs. Fructose vs. Galactose Isomers? Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 Sources: Fruits Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 Sources: Milk

14 Types of Isomers (examples can be found on page 35) Stereoisomers: differ in 3D orientation Structural: same chemical formula but differ in the order they are covalently bonded Geometric (diastereomers) : have same chemical formula but differ in the way they are arranged on either side of double bond or ring. Optical: ( enantiomers ):same chemical formula but the arrangement around the Carbon that has four different groups around it (mirror images)

15 Building sugars Dehydration synthesis glycosidic linkage | glucose | glucose monosaccharidesdisaccharide | maltose H2OH2O

16 Building sugars Dehydration synthesis | fructose | glucose monosaccharides | sucrose (table sugar) disaccharide H2OH2O

17 Building sugars Dehydration synthesis glycosidic linkage | galactose | glucose monosaccharidesdisaccharide | lactose H2OH2O

18 Polysaccharides Polymers of sugars – costs little energy to build – easily reversible = release energy Function: – energy storage starch (plants) glycogen (animals) – in liver & muscles – structure cellulose (plants) chitin (arthropods & fungi)

19 Linear vs. branched polysaccharides starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage slow release fast release Straight chain: amylose Branched: amylopectin Cellulose not digestible by us

20 es/u1fig8b.jpg Bacteria cell wall Fungi,arthropods

21 Polysaccharide diversity Molecular structure determines function  isomers of glucose  structure determines function… in starchin cellulose

22 Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest enzyme cellulose hard to digest

23 Chitin, a different structural polysaccharide (a) The structure of the chitin monomer. O CH 2 OH OH H H H NH C CH 3 O H H (b) Chitin forms the exo- skeleton of arthropods. This cicada is molting, shedding its old exoskeleton and emerging in adult form. It is also found in Fungal Cell Walls. (c) Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread that decomposes after the wound or incision heals. OH

24 Cellulose Most abundant organic compound on Earth – herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulose – most carnivores have not that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients cellulose = undigestible roughage

25 Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet

26 Helpful bacteria How can herbivores digest cellulose so well? – BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose- rich (grass) meals Ruminants- 4 compartments Longer digestion process

27 Ruminant: any even-toed, hoofed mammal of the suborder Ruminantia, being comprised of cloven-hoofed, cud-chewing quadrupeds, and including, besides domestic cattle, bison, buffalo, deer, antelopes, giraffes, camels, and chevrotains.

28 What elements are Carbohydrates composed of? What are the functions of Carbohydrates? How are carbohydrates broken down in our bodies?

29 2.Which of the following is a polymer? A.Simple sugar (aka monosaccharide) B.Carbon atoms C.Glucose D.Cellulose E.deoxyribose

30 3.Starch and Glycogen both I.Serve as energy storage for organisms II.Provide structure and support III. Are structural isomers of glucose A.I only B.II only C.I and II only D.I and III only E.I, II, and III

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