Presentation on theme: "Dialect Subordinate variety of a language English language has many dialects These dialects may be of different kinds Regional dialecSocial dialect Where."— Presentation transcript:
Dialect Subordinate variety of a language
English language has many dialects These dialects may be of different kinds Regional dialecSocial dialect Where we come from Who we are
Geographical features (rivers and mountains) Social native (social class group) The study of dialects or dialectology has to do with boundaries
Most of the languages in Papua New Guinea are spoken by small groups 40% have fewer than 500 speakers
The greatest concentration of diversity is found in Melanesia Where up to 1500 languages are spoken People are multilingual and speak four or five languages New Britain
Ten examples illustrate how people in different villages would request someone to given them “betelnut to chew” Results -Varieties 6 and 7 -> identical -Varieties 8 and 9 -> similar to 6 and 7 -Varieties 3, 4 and 5 -> show close relationship. Differ in terms of vowel in the roof and in the prefix of the verv chew. - Variety 10 -> not very different Results -Varieties 6 and 7 -> identical -Varieties 8 and 9 -> similar to 6 and 7 -Varieties 3, 4 and 5 -> show close relationship. Differ in terms of vowel in the roof and in the prefix of the verv chew. - Variety 10 -> not very different
Two major language families in Papua New Guinea comprising 700 to 800 languages
TheWest Romance dialects Germanic dialect continua Stretches through rural communities from the Athlantic coast of France through Italy, Spain, and Portugal Mutual intelligibility exists between adjacent villages Find one another mutually unintelligible to varying degrees Connects a series of historically realted varieties that differ from one another with respect to one or more features
In Scandinavia, if a traveller knows Danish, Swedish or Norwegian It is possible to communicate across language boundaries Linguistically the languages are very close to be considered dialects of one language
DanishNorwegianSwedish Have a great deal of vocabulary in common, but differ in pronunciation. Differ more in vocabulary, but have a more similar pronunciation.
¼ Swedes -> claim to read anything in the other two languages 41% of Danes and 52% Norwegians ->listen Swedish radio 9% Swedes -> listen Norwwegian or Danish radio ¼ Swedes -> claim to read anything in the other two languages 41% of Danes and 52% Norwegians ->listen Swedish radio 9% Swedes -> listen Norwwegian or Danish radio
-George Bernard Shaw characterized England and America as two nations divided by a common language. - Noah Webster authored his dictionary of American English and employed spelling for certain words which were different from British English norms American English is a dialect of English or a separate language?
Consists of a way of pronuncing a variety Accent Varies from other dialects of the same language simultaneously on at least 3 levels of organization Dialect pronunciation Grammar or syntax vocabulary
Register Gives you a clue about what we are doing Is typically concerned with variation in language conditioned by uses rather than users. Style Can range from formal to informal depending on social context, relationship of the participants, social class, sex, age, physical enviroment and topic.
Speech comunity Comunicative competence The conventions the share about their speech variety can be called Group of people who do not know necessarily share the same language, but share a lot of norms and rules for the use of languages This term is used by sociolinguists to refer to a speaker’s underlying knowledge of the rules of grammar and rules for their use in socially appropiate circumstances.