# Warm up! Almost Every day we will start with a warm up question. Start warm up as soon as the bell rings. If I check homework and you are not working on.

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Warm up! Almost Every day we will start with a warm up question. Start warm up as soon as the bell rings. If I check homework and you are not working on warm up you will not get credit. Date on top. Write the questions or use complete sentences. You should fit one week on one side sheet of paper that I will collect and check (Every 2 weeks) 1

Today’s Warm up! 8/29: What is a hypothesis? Write a hypothesis about gravity. 2

Example Warm Up: 8/29 1. A hypothesis is a testable explanation. 2. Gravity a force that makes all objects return to earth. 3

Notes #1 Will go into note book. If you have your notebook already please leave 6 blank pages. 4

Experimental Design 5

What is Experimental Design? A set of steps or procedures that you follow when conducting an experiment. 6

OBSERVATION & Asking a Question Use the 5 senses to record what you observe. Then turn your observations into a question. Chargers have never won a super bowl Why haven’t the Chargers won a super bowl? 7

HYPOTHESIS A proposed scientific explanation. This statement is testable and can be confirmed with experimentation or further observation. The Chargers have never won a super bowl because they don’t practice enough. 8

PREDICTION Forecast what will happen in an experiment if the hypothesis is true Written as an if-then statement If the Chargers practice more, then they will a Super Bowl. 9

PRACTICE 10

Which box represents observations, questions, hypothesis and predictions? B In 1976 an outbreak in South Africa started with individuals suffering from severe headaches, fevers, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Eventually they suffered from internal bleeding with blood leaking from the nose, ears, and skin. Finally death came from collapse of the cardiovascular system due to lack of blood. A What causes the victims to die? How is it transmitted? What might differ between these investigations? D The virus is isolated from a victim causes the hemorrhagic fever. C If the virus were the causing agent, then introduction of the virus into healthy tissue would cause cell death. 11

Which box represents observations? Observation (B) In 1976 an outbreak in South Africa started with individuals suffering from severe headaches, fevers, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Eventually they suffered from internal bleeding with blood leaking from the nose, ears, and skin. Finally death came from collapse of the cardiovascular system due to lack of blood. 12

Which box represents questions? A What causes the victims to die? How is it transmitted? What might differ between these investigations? D The virus is isolated from a victim causes the hemorrhagic fever. C If the virus were the causing agent, then introduction of the virus into healthy tissue would cause cell death. 13

Which box represents observations? Observation (B) In 1976 an outbreak in South Africa started with individuals suffering from severe headaches, fevers, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Eventually they suffered from internal bleeding with blood leaking from the nose, ears, and skin. Finally death came from collapse of the cardiovascular system due to lack of blood. Questions (A) What causes the victims to die? How is it transmitted? What might differ between these investigations? 14

Which box represents a Hypothesis? D The virus is isolated from a victim causes the hemorrhagic fever. C If the virus were the causing agent, then introduction of the virus into healthy tissue would cause cell death. 15

Which box represents observations? Observation (B) In 1976 an outbreak in South Africa started with individuals suffering from severe headaches, fevers, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Eventually they suffered from internal bleeding with blood leaking from the nose, ears, and skin. Finally death came from collapse of the cardiovascular system due to lack of blood. Questions (A) What causes the victims to die? How is it transmitted? What might differ between these investigations? Hypothesis (D) The virus is isolated from a victim causes the hemorrhagic fever. Prediction (C) If the virus were the causing agent, then introduction of the virus into healthy tissue would cause cell death. 16

Notebook Page 1: About You (No backside) Page 2-3: Syllabus Page front and back Page 4: Syllabus Last Page Page 5: Syllabus Scavenger hunt 17

Warm up! On Friday we did a lab? –Was our first test a good “fair” test? Explain. Define Observation and Questions as they relate to Experimental Design. 18

Warm up: 8/30 What is a hypothesis? How does a hypothesis differ from a prediction? People on a camping trip share food, water and shelter. At the end of the trip everyone is sick. Write a hypothesis and a prediction about the people getting sick. 19

Bring Tuesday Two 150 page (3 subject) spiral bound notebook (8.5 x 11) –Big enough to glue in computer papers –One to be used for each semester 5 glue sticks Colored pencils Recommended: Hi-liter, flash cards, calculator 20

Tonight’s Homework First Page of Notebook Make a unique and colored first page of your notebook. –Must include: Your Name and Period At least 5 pictures. 21

EXPERIMENT Test the hypothesis and prediction 22

EXPERIMENT A. Controlled experiment: has a control group and an experimental group differing by only one factor (variable). Constants: Variables that remain the same between the experimental and control groups. –Ex. When testing the effects of fertilizer on fruit production, everything would stay the same between two groups of plants (water, sunlight exposure, amount of fertilizer etc). They only difference is the type of fertilizer.  This way any difference seen between the two plants would have to be due to the fertilizer. 23

EXPERIMENT B. Independent vs Dependent Variable Independent (cause): variable scientists change or manipulate Dependent (effect): changes as independent changes. The variable you are measuring. Ex: Scientists control fertilizer type given to plant (independent variable), but have no control over how many fruits the plant produces (dependent). 24

EXPERIMENT C. Collecting data (information scientist gather) Observations and measuring Sampling (using a small part to represent a bigger part) must be large and random Quantitative (numerical and objective) vs qualitative (observed or descriptive and subjective) data. Ex. Fruit color would be qualitative data whereas the number of fruits produced would be quantitative data. 25

DATA ANALYSIS – Organize data (tables, graphs, etc.) –Run statistics and model data –Accept or reject hypothesis 26

Draw or form CONCLUSION –Explain data, results, hypothesis –Make inferences –Summarize experiment and form new questions 27

COMMUNICATE Share your findings with other scientists. TalkInternet Write 28

Laws and Theories A theory is the ultimate set of principles in science. –A theory is a coherent group of tested explanations, which have been, and that can be used as principles of explanation and prediction for a class of phenomena Law –The mechanism by which a theory acts. 29

Tonight’s Homework First Page of Notebook Make a unique and colored first page of your notebook. –Must include: Your Name and Period At least 5 pictures. 30

Warm up 9/5 Name 3 topics we are going to learn this year in biology. Where will grades be posted? What must be included in the heading for all papers? What is a scientific theory? 31

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