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The Swedish Model: What, why and whereto? Lars Niklasson, Associate Professor Political Science Linköping University, Sweden.

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Presentation on theme: "The Swedish Model: What, why and whereto? Lars Niklasson, Associate Professor Political Science Linköping University, Sweden."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Swedish Model: What, why and whereto? Lars Niklasson, Associate Professor Political Science Linköping University, Sweden

2  Collective bargaining since 1938  Welfare for work (”Arbetslinjen”) since the 1950s (?)  A welfare state since the 1970s (?)  A ”high tax equilibrium”: high taxes and high quality (?)  ”Good government” generates trust in government?  Reforms since the 1990s  A new ”supermodel” (The Economist, February 2013) What is the Swedish Model?

3  The roots: from the Vikings to the present days  ---1809-1932-1968-1995  The effects: quality of life and competitive advantage?  (Better than the alternatives?)  The logic: self-supporting trust (”equilibrium”)  (Only in Sweden?)  Operations: central/local, fragmented/coordinated  Whereto? Europeanization, globalization Topics of the course

4  After completion of the course, the student should…  …be able to show a fundamental knowledge of the origins and structure of the Swedish government and the Swedish social system  …have the capacity to deal with the many myths concerning Sweden and Swedish society The ambition of the course

5  Introduction to StatebuildingLars Niklasson  Swedish history to 1600Sofia Gustafsson  Swedish history 1600-1800Henrik Ågren  Swedish history 1800-2000 Björn Ivarsson Lilieblad  Good government from 1850Lars Niklasson  The early politics of the WSElin Wihlborg  Seminar on the literature  Seminar on individual papers 1: The roots of the Swedish Model

6  Introduction to politicsLars Niklasson  Education and trainingLars Niklasson  Governance & privatizationBo Persson  Legitimacy & efficiencyLars Niklasson  Drivers of changeElin Wihlborg  Seminar on the literature  Seminar on individual papers 2: The Swedish Welfare System

7  Active participation at the seminars  Questions on the literature will be provided  Submit and defend a short individual paper  1,000-1,500 words  A topic related to the course  A question and a short analysis  Only few extra sources (use the literature)  Collaboration is encouraged  High grades for clarity and creativity Course requirements

8  A history compendium  Articles by Bo Rothstein et al  Quality of Government Institute, Gothenburg  Morel, Palier & Palme 2012: Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, Bristol: The Policy Press  Articles from Oxford Handbook on Swedish Politics (forthcoming)  Articles on higher education policy The literature

9  States are different  Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, German, French, Asian etc.  Parliaments, governments, bureaucracies etc.  Comparison helps us understand and see causalitys  The historical process helps explain present variety  What was before states?  Why have they dominated from 1648?  How were patterns formed? 1. Introduction to Statebuilding

10  Estates (the nobility) vs absolutist kings  Strong peasants or towns (Not West/East)  A military state vs separation  ”Corruption” until 1870s vs 1730s  The legal systems, university education  Gradual shift from conservatism to corporatism vs radical break and strong liberalism (by the farmers)  S: Protectionism, administrative corp., social corp. (statism)  D: Radical break 1848-49, farmers and towns, little corporatism  More private providers in the Danish WS, less paternalism Sweden and Denmark: Different paths and outcomes

11  What are ”western” and ”eastern” patterns?  How do Sweden and Denmark fit these patterns?  Sweden’s bureaucracy was more corrupt for a longer time than Denmark’s; How? Why?  What were the important steps in Sweden’s ”road to mass politics”? How did it differ from Denmark’s?  How did the popular movements differ?  Can we see differences in the welfare states? (1993)  (Why is Sweden more similar to Denmark now? A new path?) Knudsen & Rothstein 1993: State-building in Scandinavia

12  Lecture 2: Swedish history to 1600  Lecture 3: Swedish history 1600-1800  Lecture 4: Swedish history 1800-2000  Based on the compendium  Excursion to western Östergötland Swedish history

13  To be completed! Questions on the history compendium

14  The puzzle: What causes what?  A. Economic development, industrialization  B. ”Good government” without corruption  C. Welfare policies  Rothstein et al: the quality of the government is the key  Corruption is a barrier to welfare and development  (Co-evolution with early industrialization?)  How can you go from corruption to non-corruption?  Corruption is a stable equilibrium  Now: one of the least corrupt countries in the world  Lessons applicable to Russia, Africa etc 5. The roots of good government

15  The French ambassador 1771: Two serious problems, love for democracy and total corruption  A patrimonial, nepotistic state  A blurred line between public office and private interest  Heckscher: Marshy (försumpad) administration  Hiring not based on merit  Offices were sold to finance retirement  Hold several offices and hire others to do the job  Fees, housing and grain instead of salary  Bribery was a crime only for judges Sweden was a thirld world country

16  How to stop taking bribes?  More control presumes a benevolent principal  How to control state leaders?  Democratic elections, accountability, presumes…  A social trap, a suboptimal equilibrium (”collective action theory of corruption”), explains persistence  ”Big bang” as a way out: impossible?  An endogenous way out? (Ostrom 1990) How can we explain the transformation?

17  Supply of a solution, Comitment, Monitoring  A cooperation game (as overfishing etc)  A high payoff from cooperation  ”Another world is possible”  New ideas: Liberalism  Exogenous factors? Ostrom’s solution

18  Appeals Court cases on malfeasance peaked twice, i.e. there was increased attention to the problem  A new High Court in 1789, by the absolutist king but with a long-term positive impact  A need to save money after the wars 1808-09, 1814  A new political situation after the collapse of the government 1809. A new constitution and a new king  A threat to national survival, becoming a small state  Corruption was mainly in the rural administration Data shows the transformation

19  The separation of public and private money: punishment for taking private ”loans” 1823  Several initiatives to outlaw promotion based on fees (pension system introduced in the 1870s)  A new tax system and the introduction of salaries  A Weberian perspective: an impartial bureaucracy was needed to strengten the legitimacy of the public sector (not divinity, heritage, tradition etc)  The bureaucracy as a machine (hierarchy) to handle routine cases in governments (and companies) Debates in the Parliament (the Diet with four estates)

20  Enlightenment liberalism: meritocracy, impartiality, professionalism, accountability  Britain, France, Prussia, Bavaria (Schiller/Beethoven…)  Stronger from 1830 due to a liberal press and more liberals in the Parliament/Diet (industrialists)  Demand for a more representative parliament and a government that respected the constitution Where did the ideas come from?

21  From feudal loyalty (back) to Roman legal traditions  Need for education and good universities  More rational government: Railway Board 1862, Telegraph Board 1865, Road and Waterway Commission 1841  Feudal guilds abolished 1864: free trade and commerce  Industrialization started around 1870 Bureaucracy and the economy

22  From aristocratic/particularistic state to bureaucratic/universal state  Bureaucracy and its alternatives  Important for the development of the economy; cause or effect? Good government from 1850

23  What are the key elements in a theory inspired by Ostrom to explain the abolishment of corruption?  What are the key evidence that Sweden confirms to Ostrom’s explanation?  What external (exogenous) factors can have helped in the transformation of Sweden? Teorell & Rothstein 2012: Getting to Sweden: Malfeasance and bureaucratic reforms 1720-1850

24  What are the key elements of a bureaucracy according to Max Weber?  How did the Swedish civil service differ from the Weberian model?  What are the benefits of a bureaucratic government?  Is the bureaucratic model still appropriate for governments? How can it be improved? Rothstein 1998: State Building and Capitalism: The Rise of the Swedish Bureaucracy

25  Popular protest and organized civil society  Free trade vs. protectionism  Democracy for men and women  Saltsjöbaden 1938: corporatism  The dominance of the labor movement 1932-76  ATP as a key event and major conflict  ”The solidaristic pay policy” and the booming 1960s  1968 and the 1970s: triumph or hubris? 6. The politics of the early welfare state

26  What are universal welfare states?  What are its electoral and political effects?  What are the alternative explanations for a relation between big governments and social capital?  What evidence points to the welfare state as an outcome of social capital?  What evidence points to the welfare state as a producer of social capital? Rothstein 2008b: Is the universal welfare state a cause or an effect of social capital?

27  What is the Power Resource Theory?  What are the problems with PRT?  What is ”bringing the state back in”?  What are the key ideas in the Quality of Government (QoG) theory?  What does the empirical evidence show? Are there any problems with the evidence? Rothstein, Samanni & Teorell 2012: Explaining the welfare state: Power resources vs the quality of government

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