Presentation on theme: "The Swedish Model: What, why and whereto? Lars Niklasson, Associate Professor Political Science Linköping University, Sweden."— Presentation transcript:
The Swedish Model: What, why and whereto? Lars Niklasson, Associate Professor Political Science Linköping University, Sweden
Collective bargaining since 1938 Welfare for work (”Arbetslinjen”) since the 1950s (?) A welfare state since the 1970s (?) A ”high tax equilibrium”: high taxes and high quality (?) ”Good government” generates trust in government? Reforms since the 1990s A new ”supermodel” (The Economist, February 2013) What is the Swedish Model?
The roots: from the Vikings to the present days ---1809-1932-1968-1995 The effects: quality of life and competitive advantage? (Better than the alternatives?) The logic: self-supporting trust (”equilibrium”) (Only in Sweden?) Operations: central/local, fragmented/coordinated Whereto? Europeanization, globalization Topics of the course
After completion of the course, the student should… …be able to show a fundamental knowledge of the origins and structure of the Swedish government and the Swedish social system …have the capacity to deal with the many myths concerning Sweden and Swedish society The ambition of the course
Introduction to StatebuildingLars Niklasson Swedish history to 1600Sofia Gustafsson Swedish history 1600-1800Henrik Ågren Swedish history 1800-2000 Björn Ivarsson Lilieblad Good government from 1850Lars Niklasson The early politics of the WSElin Wihlborg Seminar on the literature Seminar on individual papers 1: The roots of the Swedish Model
Introduction to politicsLars Niklasson Education and trainingLars Niklasson Governance & privatizationBo Persson Legitimacy & efficiencyLars Niklasson Drivers of changeElin Wihlborg Seminar on the literature Seminar on individual papers 2: The Swedish Welfare System
Active participation at the seminars Questions on the literature will be provided Submit and defend a short individual paper 1,000-1,500 words A topic related to the course A question and a short analysis Only few extra sources (use the literature) Collaboration is encouraged High grades for clarity and creativity Course requirements
A history compendium Articles by Bo Rothstein et al Quality of Government Institute, Gothenburg Morel, Palier & Palme 2012: Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, Bristol: The Policy Press Articles from Oxford Handbook on Swedish Politics (forthcoming) Articles on higher education policy The literature
States are different Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, German, French, Asian etc. Parliaments, governments, bureaucracies etc. Comparison helps us understand and see causalitys The historical process helps explain present variety What was before states? Why have they dominated from 1648? How were patterns formed? 1. Introduction to Statebuilding
Estates (the nobility) vs absolutist kings Strong peasants or towns (Not West/East) A military state vs separation ”Corruption” until 1870s vs 1730s The legal systems, university education Gradual shift from conservatism to corporatism vs radical break and strong liberalism (by the farmers) S: Protectionism, administrative corp., social corp. (statism) D: Radical break 1848-49, farmers and towns, little corporatism More private providers in the Danish WS, less paternalism Sweden and Denmark: Different paths and outcomes
What are ”western” and ”eastern” patterns? How do Sweden and Denmark fit these patterns? Sweden’s bureaucracy was more corrupt for a longer time than Denmark’s; How? Why? What were the important steps in Sweden’s ”road to mass politics”? How did it differ from Denmark’s? How did the popular movements differ? Can we see differences in the welfare states? (1993) (Why is Sweden more similar to Denmark now? A new path?) Knudsen & Rothstein 1993: State-building in Scandinavia
Lecture 2: Swedish history to 1600 Lecture 3: Swedish history 1600-1800 Lecture 4: Swedish history 1800-2000 Based on the compendium Excursion to western Östergötland Swedish history
To be completed! Questions on the history compendium
The puzzle: What causes what? A. Economic development, industrialization B. ”Good government” without corruption C. Welfare policies Rothstein et al: the quality of the government is the key Corruption is a barrier to welfare and development (Co-evolution with early industrialization?) How can you go from corruption to non-corruption? Corruption is a stable equilibrium Now: one of the least corrupt countries in the world Lessons applicable to Russia, Africa etc 5. The roots of good government
The French ambassador 1771: Two serious problems, love for democracy and total corruption A patrimonial, nepotistic state A blurred line between public office and private interest Heckscher: Marshy (försumpad) administration Hiring not based on merit Offices were sold to finance retirement Hold several offices and hire others to do the job Fees, housing and grain instead of salary Bribery was a crime only for judges Sweden was a thirld world country
How to stop taking bribes? More control presumes a benevolent principal How to control state leaders? Democratic elections, accountability, presumes… A social trap, a suboptimal equilibrium (”collective action theory of corruption”), explains persistence ”Big bang” as a way out: impossible? An endogenous way out? (Ostrom 1990) How can we explain the transformation?
Supply of a solution, Comitment, Monitoring A cooperation game (as overfishing etc) A high payoff from cooperation ”Another world is possible” New ideas: Liberalism Exogenous factors? Ostrom’s solution
Appeals Court cases on malfeasance peaked twice, i.e. there was increased attention to the problem A new High Court in 1789, by the absolutist king but with a long-term positive impact A need to save money after the wars 1808-09, 1814 A new political situation after the collapse of the government 1809. A new constitution and a new king A threat to national survival, becoming a small state Corruption was mainly in the rural administration Data shows the transformation
The separation of public and private money: punishment for taking private ”loans” 1823 Several initiatives to outlaw promotion based on fees (pension system introduced in the 1870s) A new tax system and the introduction of salaries A Weberian perspective: an impartial bureaucracy was needed to strengten the legitimacy of the public sector (not divinity, heritage, tradition etc) The bureaucracy as a machine (hierarchy) to handle routine cases in governments (and companies) Debates in the Parliament (the Diet with four estates)
Enlightenment liberalism: meritocracy, impartiality, professionalism, accountability Britain, France, Prussia, Bavaria (Schiller/Beethoven…) Stronger from 1830 due to a liberal press and more liberals in the Parliament/Diet (industrialists) Demand for a more representative parliament and a government that respected the constitution Where did the ideas come from?
From feudal loyalty (back) to Roman legal traditions Need for education and good universities More rational government: Railway Board 1862, Telegraph Board 1865, Road and Waterway Commission 1841 Feudal guilds abolished 1864: free trade and commerce Industrialization started around 1870 Bureaucracy and the economy
From aristocratic/particularistic state to bureaucratic/universal state Bureaucracy and its alternatives Important for the development of the economy; cause or effect? Good government from 1850
What are the key elements in a theory inspired by Ostrom to explain the abolishment of corruption? What are the key evidence that Sweden confirms to Ostrom’s explanation? What external (exogenous) factors can have helped in the transformation of Sweden? Teorell & Rothstein 2012: Getting to Sweden: Malfeasance and bureaucratic reforms 1720-1850
What are the key elements of a bureaucracy according to Max Weber? How did the Swedish civil service differ from the Weberian model? What are the benefits of a bureaucratic government? Is the bureaucratic model still appropriate for governments? How can it be improved? Rothstein 1998: State Building and Capitalism: The Rise of the Swedish Bureaucracy
Popular protest and organized civil society Free trade vs. protectionism Democracy for men and women Saltsjöbaden 1938: corporatism The dominance of the labor movement 1932-76 ATP as a key event and major conflict ”The solidaristic pay policy” and the booming 1960s 1968 and the 1970s: triumph or hubris? 6. The politics of the early welfare state
What are universal welfare states? What are its electoral and political effects? What are the alternative explanations for a relation between big governments and social capital? What evidence points to the welfare state as an outcome of social capital? What evidence points to the welfare state as a producer of social capital? Rothstein 2008b: Is the universal welfare state a cause or an effect of social capital?
What is the Power Resource Theory? What are the problems with PRT? What is ”bringing the state back in”? What are the key ideas in the Quality of Government (QoG) theory? What does the empirical evidence show? Are there any problems with the evidence? Rothstein, Samanni & Teorell 2012: Explaining the welfare state: Power resources vs the quality of government