Presentation on theme: "MAASAI Semi-nomadic Pastoralists Known for their: –Elaborate hair style –Wealth is determined by _____________ –Will drink cows blood Being forced off."— Presentation transcript:
MAASAI Semi-nomadic Pastoralists Known for their: –Elaborate hair style –Wealth is determined by _____________ –Will drink cows blood Being forced off their land to make room for tourism
What is Genocide? Genocide: is any act that is intended to destroy, in whole or part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. Examples: –Killing members of a group –Causing bodily or mental harm –Inflicting negative conditions of life –Prevent births –Transfer children
Causes of GENOCIDE Difficult social conditions intense economic problems intense political conflict –this can be conflict between dominant groups and subordinate ones that are poor and have limited rights very great and rapid social changes
cultural aspects that make genocide probable Define SCAPEGOATING: History of conflict and violence between two groups Strong respect for authority Totalitarian countries are more likely to engage in genocide than democratic. –WHY? How does passivity increase the violence? air/remembering_kitty_genovese/ air/remembering_kitty_genovese/ The New York Times: Multimedia Search for 'rwanda'The New York Times: Multimedia Search for 'rwanda'
Hutu/ Tutsi Conflict HutuHutu 85% of Population Under colonial rule: – serfs/ peasants After independence: –Hutus wanted power back After plane crash of Hutu leaders, Hutus begin to commit killings of Tutsis TutsiTutsi 15% of population Under colonial rule: –Upper class After independence: –Tried to keep power 800,000 massacred Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) –Tutsi militia group –Ended the genocide
RWANDA Hutus are the ______________ Tutsi are the ______________ The European power that imperialized Rwanda is ________ Independence was gained in 1961 –Hutus took power –200,000 Tutsis fled Rwanda Tutsis formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) –a militia group Paul Kagame
Rwandas Colonial Legacy 1600s- Tutsi kings conquered Hutus –feudal system set up Belgium took control of Rwanda –required identity cards labeled w/ persons ethnicity –ruled through Tutsi kings –Tutsi were the minority 1959-Hutus rebelled against Tutsis –20,000 killed –others forced into exile
The Spark 1994: Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, plane was shot down –Who shot down the plane? Govt encourages Hutus to kill Tutsi over the radio an unofficial militia group called the Interahamwe (meaning those who attack together) began to massacre Tutsis –Death toll: _____________ Hutu: ______________ Why? RPF defeated the Interahamwe –Defeated Hutus (2 million) flee to Zaire in fear of retribution
Timeline April 7- killing of moderate Hutu politicians and Tutsi leaders –US evacuates Americans –8000 dead –General Dallaire, head of UN peacekeepers, is told not to intervene April massacres of ordinary Tutsis –32,000 dead
April 19- New York Times report people shot and hacked to death in a church where they sought refuge –72,000 dead April UN votes to withdraw 90% of peacekeepers from Rwanda –112,000 dead Tutsi man who survived a machete attack
Timeline April 25- UN troops reduced to 450 –144,000 dead April 27- Pope John Paul II is 1 st to call it genocide –160,000 dead US cautious to use word genocide- WHY? Do you think it was? May ,000 dead- UN decides to send in 5000 troops but argue over who will pay, –troops do not arrive until JULY! (Skulls ironically beside a poster of Pope John Paul II. Catholic churches became places of killing during the genocide and two nuns were convicted of genocide by the Arusha Court. )
Timeline May 25- President Clinton gives speech –What is he saying? July 17- Tutsi forces Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) capture capital of Kigali, –Hutu government and refugees flee to Zaire (DR Congo) –800,000 dead Whether we [the US] get involved in any of the world's ethnic conflicts in the end must depend on the cumulative weight of the American interests at stake."
Aftermath Tutsis recapture capital –w/ help from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) Death toll equaled 10% of the population –90% of victims were Tutsi –10% were moderate Hutus 2 million Hutu refugees flee in fear Rwandas leader at the time, Jean Kambanda (Hutu), put on trial Given life in prison
Reflection Why do you think this event started? Was Rwanda a genocide? Explain. What should the United Nations have done? Explain. What should the US have done? Explain. Heroes and Bystanders –www.pbs.org/wgbh/pag es/frontline/shows/ghost s/videowww.pbs.org/wgbh/pag es/frontline/shows/ghost s/video
Sudans Darfur Crisis
Sudan Crisis Janjaweed –Arab Muslim militia –Supported b/t govt Black Africans Muslims –Victims of the Janjaweed Beginnings: –Black Africans wanted political power and economic equality –Janjaweed used to expel and combat Darfurians
jan-june04/refugees_05-13.html Refugee Camps -Majority fled to neighboring Chad -1million million total -Problems: food, water, unsanitary
What are some similarities and differences between Rwanda and Sudan?