Presentation on theme: "MAASAI Semi-nomadic Pastoralists Known for their:"— Presentation transcript:
1MAASAI Semi-nomadic Pastoralists Known for their: Elaborate hair styleWealth is determined by _____________Will drink cows bloodBeing forced off their land to make room for tourism
2What is Genocide?Genocide: is any act that is intended to destroy, in whole or part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group.Examples:Killing members of a groupCausing bodily or mental harmInflicting negative conditions of lifePrevent birthsTransfer children
3Causes of GENOCIDE Difficult social conditions intense economic problemsintense political conflictthis can be conflict between dominant groups and subordinate ones that are poor and have limited rightsvery great and rapid social changes
4cultural aspects that make genocide probable Define SCAPEGOATING:History of conflict and violence between two groupsStrong respect for authorityTotalitarian countries are more likely to engage in genocide than democratic.WHY?How does passivity increase the violence?The New York Times: Multimedia Search for 'rwanda'
6Hutu/ Tutsi Conflict Hutu 85% of Population Under colonial rule: serfs/ peasantsAfter independence:Hutu’s wanted power backAfter plane crash of Hutu leaders, Hutus begin to commit killings of TutsisTutsi15% of populationUnder colonial rule:Upper classAfter independence:Tried to keep power800,000 massacredRwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)Tutsi militia groupEnded the genocide
7RWANDA Hutus are the ______________ Tutsi are the ______________ The European power that imperialized Rwanda is ________Independence was gained in 1961Hutus took power200,000 Tutsi’s fled RwandaTutsi’s formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)a militia groupPaul Kagame
8Rwanda’s Colonial Legacy 1600s- Tutsi kings conquered Hutusfeudal system set up1916- Belgium took control of Rwandarequired identity cards labeled w/ person’s ethnicityruled through Tutsi kingsTutsi were the minority1959-Hutus rebelled against Tutsis20,000 killedothers forced into exile
9The Spark1994: Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, plane was shot downWho shot down the plane?Gov’t encourages Hutus to kill Tutsi over the radioan unofficial militia group called the Interahamwe (meaning those who attack together) began to massacre Tutsi’sDeath toll: _____________@ Hutu: ______________Why?RPF defeated the InterahamweDefeated Hutus (2 million) flee to Zaire in fear of retribution
10TimelineApril 7- killing of moderate Hutu politicians and Tutsi leadersUS evacuates Americans8000 deadGeneral Dallaire, head of UN peacekeepers, is told not to interveneApril massacres of ordinary Tutsis32,000 dead
11April 21-22- UN votes to withdraw 90% of peacekeepers from Rwanda April 19- New York Times report people shot and hacked to death in a church where they sought refuge72,000 deadApril UN votes to withdraw 90% of peacekeepers from Rwanda112,000 deadTutsi man who survived a machete attack
12Timeline April 25- UN troops reduced to 450 144,000 deadApril 27- Pope John Paul II is 1st to call it “genocide”160,000 deadUS cautious to use word “genocide”- WHY? Do you think it was?May ,000 dead- UN decides to send in 5000 troops but argue over who will pay,troops do not arrive until JULY!(Skulls ironically beside a poster of Pope John Paul II. Catholic churches became places of killing during the genocide and two nuns were convicted of genocide by the Arusha Court. )
13Timeline May 25- President Clinton gives speech What is he saying?July 17- Tutsi forces Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) capture capital of Kigali,Hutu government and refugees flee to Zaire (DR Congo)800,000 dead“Whether we [the US] get involved in any of the world's ethnic conflicts in the end must depend on the cumulative weight of the American interests at stake."
14Aftermath Tutsis recapture capital w/ help from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)Death toll equaled 10% of the population90% of victims were Tutsi10% were moderate Hutus2 million Hutu refugees flee in fearRwanda’s leader at the time, Jean Kambanda (Hutu), put on trialGiven life in prison
15Reflection Why do you think this event started? Was Rwanda a genocide? Explain.What should the United Nations have done? Explain.What should the US have done? Explain.Heroes and Bystanders
17Sudan Crisis Janjaweed Black Africans Muslims Beginnings: Arab Muslim militiaSupported b/t gov’tBlack Africans MuslimsVictims of the JanjaweedBeginnings:Black Africans wanted political power and economic equalityJanjaweed used to expel andcombat Darfurians
18Refugee Camps-Majority fled to neighboring Chad-1million million total-Problems: food, water, unsanitary
19What are some similarities and differences between Rwanda and Sudan?