Botswana Geography Size of Texas or France 80% covered by Kalahari Desert Cattle outnumber people
Botswana History/ People Tswana people migrated into the region in 1500s Wars w/ white settlers (Boers) during 1800s, sought protection from British Became a British colony in 1885 Gained independence in 1966 President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA –Elected April 2008
Botswana Economy Stable economy Diamonds= 80% of exports Also copper, beef, and nickel Cattle is the traditional measurement of wealth HUGE rich/ poor gap Unemployment rate= 45% The Jwaneng mine, in Botswana, is the most valuable diamond mine in the world. Its 1995 production of about 10.5 million carats had a value of about $1.2 billion. A stamp
Botswana Government Stable! Parliamentary republic (like UK) Traditional village councils are male- dominated, govern schools and health clinics Unlike most African nations- never had a coup or been ruled by a dictator! –Mainly due to Tswana ethnic cohesion and stable economy
Botswana Education 75% adult literacy rate All students attend school, no fees Learn English Who receives an education?
Botswana Health Care Infant mortality relatively low- 38 per 1000 births Other diseases: malaria, sleeping sickness, schistosomiasis –Can cause anemia, diarrhea, pain, fatigue and malnutrition
Over 1/3 of adults infected with HIV/AIDS Has decreased life expectancy to 40 years -down from 65 only 10 years ago!
South Africa Geography Slightly larger than TX, OK, and NM combined! Completely surrounds two other nations –Lesotho –Swaziland Many rivers Drakensberg Mountains-get snow
History of South Africa 1652- Dutch established a trade station @ Cape Town Dutch colonists came to be known as Boers –enslaved Africans British gained possession of Cape Town in 1814 –Boers moved northward, gaining land (Great Trek) 1899-1902- Boer War –Between British and Dutch Boers –over gold and diamonds –British won 1948-Apartheid began 1961- Independence from Britain
South African Leaders Nelson Mandela –fought against Apartheid system –Jailed for 27 years 1993-Won Nobel Peace Prize w/ FW de Klerk –began reforms in govt in 1989 1994- elected President (until 1999) Jacob Zuma: current Pres.
Economy/ Natural Resources Richest country in Africa Big gap between white and non- white incomes Worlds largest producer of platinum and gold diamonds, chrome, and coal High unemployment= 30-40%
South Africa Government Voting age=18 Parliamentary Republic 1994 election: first time indigenous South Africans could vote!
South Africa Education/Health Care Kids go to school until age 15 19 universities Public hospitals open to all Free health care to pregnant women and kids under 6 ½ lack basic sanitation 1/3 lack potable (drinkable) water
Diseases Highest # of HIV-positive citizens in world! (5.3 million today) 1 in 9 (1 in 4 adults) is infected with HIV Worlds largest tuberculosis infection rate
Zimbabwe Geography Slightly larger than Montana Landlocked Known for balancing rocks Victoria Falls
Zimbabwe History Great Zimbabwe- early trading empire Zimbabwe means stone houses 1888- Cecil Rhodes granted charter to colonize –1923-became Br. Colony of Southern Rhodesia –Desired to build a railroad from Cairo to Capetown 1965-declared independence- sparked a civil war
Zimbabwe Govt Robert Mugabe- elected Pres. in 1980 –Has ruled ever since –Corrupt government Claims to be a Parliamentary Republic but is really a dictatorship! Voting age= 18 2002 & 06 elections were rigged and fraudulent 2008: shares power w/ Morgan Tsvangirai
Economy/ Natural Resources 2/3 of population in agriculture –problem w/ droughts Tobacco and cotton= 40% of exports –Corn, tea, and sugar Manufacture footwear and furniture Unemployment= 60% Suffers from hyper-inflation
Zimbabwe Education/ Health care Education: very high literacy rate Almost all kids go to school Malaria, cholera, bilharzia (schistosmiasis) People often use traditional healers 2 nd highest HIV infection rate in world
other DISEASES Malaria: –kills three times as many children in Africa as HIV/AIDS –spread by mosquitoes Sleeping Sickness: –Tsetse fly –20,000 new cases a year amongst ppl –kills 1000s of cattle a year
MARBURG VIRUS Marburg Virus –outbreak in Angola –over 250 died –Ebola like virus –begins w/ high fever head/body aches –w/i 5-7 days: liver & kidney failure spontaneous bleeding death
FAMINE Famine is caused by: –periods of drought –heavy reliance on foreign imports –armed conflicts –locusts and crop eating insects Problems related to getting aid for famine regions: –African leaders resistance to admitting food shortages exist –Resistance to genetically modified food aid –Difficulty of transporting food aid to areas hit by famine
BRAIN DRAIN Brain Drain - the emigration of African professionals to western nations –Searching for better working conditions and pay –Private agencies are actively recruiting African workers –High crime, violence, and human rights abuses –Failing economies and high unemployment Causes of African economic crisis: –Western exploitation of natural resources –Poor soil & weather patterns –Dictators & conflicts Solution: –Western countries cancel & forgive debts