Presentation on theme: "Application Security & DevOps How DevOps can keep application security from being an afterthought."— Presentation transcript:
Application Security & DevOps How DevOps can keep application security from being an afterthought
A lot of Dev and Ops people look at their security teams with disdain. "Those guys are just blockers... All they do is throw obstacles in my way and say no. They'll never be DevOps or even Agile." In return many security people see the emergence of DevOps as creating a wilder, less managed environment in which they would face more risk and greater security challenges. --- James Turnbull, Puppet Labs I recognize that my code will be used in ways I cannot anticipate, in ways it was not designed, and for longer than it was ever intended. --- Rugged Manifesto (Josh Corman, David Rice, Jeff Williams) My Observation: prevailing view of security as separate from development and operations, DevOps or no DevOps.
Application Security is a 2 nd Class Citizen PROBLEM EXAMPLES: SSL is a requirement, but may be addressed very late in the SDLC. Coding for SSL and non-SSL may differ substantially. LDAP authentication (authc) and/or authorization (authz) is a requirement, but ops may not find time to supply a dev/test directory server with realistic entries. Or any dev identity server at all… Automated tests on web pages test happy-path function, maybe even a few data validation edge cases, but often ignore security tests.
Application Security is a 2 nd Class Citizen – cont’d No firewalls in dev – plenty of ‘em in prod. Arguments over ports at 11 th hour. Third-party libraries not subjected to security audits. Production system trust boundaries differ from development DBAs and development team have widely diverging views on authentication. Organizational security chief may have pet theories about IT security – best ask early. End users want SSO…nobody asked them.
History of DevOps DevOps comes from a need for innovation on the systems side of technology work. ESM (Enterprise Systems Management) – mid-2000′s – ITIL as a governance framework largely superseded by “ITIL Lite” Visible Ops approach – shift from “large vendor” focused to more open source and smaller vendor offerings. first O’Reilly Velocity conference – 2008, – focus on Web performance and operations – 2009 seminal presentations about the developer/operations collaboration at large. Provisioning tools like Puppet and Chef. Parallel thinking about “Agile Systems Administration – Focus on analogies from Kanban/Lean manufacturing processes -> IT systems administration. – 2009: popularization of the term DevOps.
What is DevOps? More collaborative relationship between development teams and operations teams System administrators participating in an agile development process alongside developers Fusion of: – Toolchains of monitoring and provisioning tools, CI, automated testing etc – agile processes – Development teams /operations team cooperation
Secure SDLC Security requirements need to be defined as early as possible during the SDLC Standard PhaseSecurity TaskNotes KickoffOrganizational security policy Management support for security RequirementsProject security policy Security model Security Specification DesignDefensive threat modeling DevelopmentSecurity code reviewsIncludes TDD and unit test TestingAdversarial threat modeling (pen-tests) Functional, integration, system, UAT ImplementationSecurity configurationSmoke tests Ops & MaintenanceSecurity maintenance checklist DecommissioningBack-out security configuration E.g. dedicated LDAP groups
Some Secure SDLC Examples Some processes and standards that can support security in a SDLC: – Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing Security Development Lifecycle – SEI Team Software Process for Secure Software Development (TSP) – Correctness by Construction – Merging security assurance activities into Agile development methods (recent) – The Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) – Software Assurance Maturity Model Many common processes and methodologies are not designed specifically to address software security from the ground up.
Problems with Secure SDLCs One of the major hurdles is the availability of security expertise for the developer. 2009 Veracode survey: – Only 13% of companies know the security quality of critical applications. – 60% are increasing scrutiny on partners for delivering secure code – Only 34% of companies have a comprehensive SDLC process which integrates application security. – 57% of organizations don’t have AppSec training programs for their developers. – 64% of respondents cannot afford desired application security. SSE-CMM, Trusted CMM, Common Criteria, Correctness by Construction, and TSP Secure require security-knowledgeable resources and that an organization adopt a different and more rigorous development approach. Organizations are showing increased response to security, but there is still a long way to go before considerations of security in the SDLC can be considered mainstream.
Typical Process Conflicts Operations often not involved in architectural decisions or code reviews. – E.g. development team comes up with some system interfaces that ops hears about well after the fact. Whaddya mean you’ve got that external party coming in that way? Developers often cannot identify minimal steps to reach a configuration state. – E.g. trial and error to set up working security, little idea of what is actually needed. – Developers not given time to determine essential elements of a vulnerability fix. Developer configurations are optimized for development, not production. – E.g. no LDAP, no SSL, inadequate development DBs. – Development typically has no configuration management, test might have, prod usually does. – An entire developer system may be on one server, where prod uses four. Development and operations do not cooperate to define the runtime environment – E.g. prod web server may be entirely different than development servers. Do not assume that Operations is familiar with the technology used by development
Secure DevOps Challenges “Traditional” DevOps – developers want change, operations wants stability – Both give security short shrift – DevOps - mixing of infrastructure operations with software development, in short release cycles – squeezes out security, which requires deliberation Current DevOps is often a dyad Secure DevOps is a triad
Goals for Secure DevOps Agile Security Testing Secure Coding + Secure Operations + Secure Collaboration Developer training now has meaning Faster communication between Development and Operations on Vulnerability Information Faster patching/closure of vulnerabilities Process of collaboration between Development and Operation Single manager/management system for security during the release cycle
Goals for Secure DevOps (2) Identify security responsibilities: – Operations is responsible for architecting the more stable infrastructure components. – Agile developers handle the application, which is now a 1 st class security concern along with infrastructure. Developers work within a secured environment that is locked down to production standards. Establish a security standard for the (infrastructure) baseline that is monitored from development to production. End results: – accountability for securing the whole stack – significantly reduce the impact of security audits on the DevOps cycle – High degree of automation, hence efficiency Engage your QA/QC people
Automating Security What to automate – SAST (Static Application Security Testing) Examine source code, byte code or application binaries for conditions indicative of a security vulnerability Involves tools that help with either a) Review or b) Static Analysis – DAST (Dynamic Application Security Testing) Black-box (Functional and non-functional), White-box, and Defect-based tests. Examine the application in its running state in order to discover security vulnerabilities Robustness testing (i.e. fuzz testing) or fault-injection
Automating Security (2) Introduce security automation gradually Low-hanging fruit – Add static code analysis to CI system, clearly distinguish from non-security Require that functional tests incorporate authc and authz – E.g. QTP or Selenium web page tests must hook into a security realm, even if it’s a mock. – Must test method authorizations in development Engage your CI enthusiasts
Separation of Duties Deconflicting DevOps and traditional attitudes – Management support for secure SDLC/secure DevOps/Rugged DevOps process – Single boss for security work across Dev and Ops, with management and business backing – IT Separation of Duties is fine as far as it goes, but don’t let an overzealous admin misinterpret it.
Conclusions Identify and engage champions and process enthusiasts Operations owns “static” infrastructure baseline; development owns application Single manager overseeing security Developers have same environment as production Development, test and production all use security Build security into automated testing and provisioning Train your people – developers and operators – in security
Notes DAST. Fault-injection can include Trusted Computing Base (TCB) testing including the loading of shared libraries or DLLs at run-time. Dynamic testing can include concurrency checking and many other factors. Tools: – SAST: HP/Fortify, IBM, Veracode, Checkmarx, Grammatech, Amorize, Coverity, Klocwork and Parasoft, FindBugs, PMD and FxCop – DAST: WebScarab