Presentation on theme: "Lesson Objectives Understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory including – Dalton’s Postulates –"— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Objectives Understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory including – Dalton’s Postulates – Thomson’s discovery of electron properties – Rutherford’s nuclear atom – Bohr’s nuclear atom Atomic Theory
Atomic Structure A brief look at the history of the atom.
Democritus of Abdera Began the discussion of the possible existence of ATOMS! ATOM: from the Greek meaning “cannot be cut”. But, he had no empirical evidence, so for centuries people believed Aristotle.
Democritus' Ideas Matter is composed of empty space through which atoms move. Atoms are solid, homogeneous, indestructible, and indivisible. Diff. kinds of atoms have different sizes and shapes The differing properties of matter are due to the size, shape, and movement of atoms. Apparent changes in matter result from changes in the groupings of atoms and not from changes in the atoms themselves.
The Aristotelian Approach to Knowledge 2000 The scientific method is still another 2000 yrs. away. pure Rationalism They believed one should separate the mind from the body (emotions) in order to understand anything. Attaining knowledge by pure reason, or Rationalism. What’s the purpose of knowledge?? To lead you to the truth.
The Empirical Approach Come to knowledge by relying on our senses... the beginning of experimentation. Rationalism Empiricism So, compare Rationalism to Empiricism. What’s better?? Rational Rational – problems with our reason. Plato’s Academy. Empirical Empirical – problems with trusting our senses.
First credible atomic theory introduced by John Dalton in 1808 Dalton studied the ratio in which elements combine when reacted with each other Based theory on experimental results gathered by other scientists (Lavosier’s conservation of mass and Proust’s law of definite proportions) Development of Atomic Theory
Dalton’s Postulates – Elements are made of small and indivisible particles called atoms – Atoms of a given element are identical to one another but differ from atoms of other elements – Chemical reactions occur when atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged in simplified whole-number ratios – Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions Shortcomings of Dalton’s Postulates – Atoms of an element can have masses that differ slightly – Atoms can be divided into subatomic particles Dalton’s Experimental Theory
Scientists noticed that some substances decomposed when exposed to electrical current – Elements are held together by electrical forces Scientists discovered the cathode ray Atoms and Electricity Cathode Ray Tube
Rays in a cathode tube were attracted to a metal plate that had a positive charge – Cathode ray – stream of negatively charged particles Thomson calculated the electric charge to mass ratio of the particles in cathode rays – Mass of these particles was much less than the atom with the least mass Electron (e - ) – negatively charged subatomic particle Discovery of the Electron Cathode Ray Tube
Thomson formulated the “Plum Pudding” model – Atoms are made of a positively charged mass and electrons are scattered throughout the mass, like plums mixed in a pudding Failed to correctly establish the structure of the atom Thomson’s Atomic Model Plum Pudding Model
Bombarded a thin foil of gold with alpha particles – Alpha particles have a +2 charge Discovery of nucleus – Nucleus – positively charged, dense center of an atom Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment
Rutherford estimated that diameter of the nucleus was only 1/10000 of the diameter of the atom Nucleus accounts for almost all of an atom’s mass – Nucleus contains protons and neutrons Proton – positively charged subatomic particle (p + ) Neutron – neutrally charged subatomic particle (n 0 ) - J. Chadwick Rutherford’s nuclear atom showed a positive nucleus orbited by electrons Rutherford’s Nuclear Atom By en:User:Cburnett [GFDL]
Following discovery of the nucleus, Bohr proposed his own atomic theory – Tried to explain why the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom included only some light frequencies – Proposed a diagram that explained electron movement and energy relations Bohr’s Nuclear Atom Hydrogen gas discharge tube Silt Prism Detecting Screen
Proposed that electrons – Are arranged in circular orbits around the nucleus – Do not lose energy as they orbit – In each orbit have fixed amount of energy – In an orbit closest to the nucleus are in their lowest energy state – Gain and lose energy in certain, fixed amounts called quanta – May receive energy and move to a higher energy orbit – Return back to lower energy orbit when they release energy Photon – particle of electromagnetic radiation that possesses a quantum of energy – Energy of each photon corresponds to a certain frequency Bohr’s Nuclear Atom e-e- Photon
Did not explain emission spectrums of other elements Did not explain chemical properties of atoms Further experimentation indicated that electrons don’t revolve in circular orbits – Movement of electrons is much more complex Short Comings of Bohr’s Nuclear Atom