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Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

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Presentation on theme: "Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network"— Presentation transcript:

1 Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
3/25/2017 Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING BURLA, SAMBALPUR SIT,IITKGP

2 Types of Wireless Networks
3/25/2017 Types of Wireless Networks Infrastructure based(Cellular Network). Infrastructureless Network(Mobile Ad hoc NETwork) (MANET). SIT,IITKGP

3 Characteristics of an Ad-hoc network
3/25/2017 Characteristics of an Ad-hoc network Collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network Network topology changes frequently and unpredictably No centralized administration or standard support services Host is also function as router SIT,IITKGP

4 Why is Routing Different in Ad Hoc ???
3/25/2017 Why is Routing Different in Ad Hoc ??? Host mobility Dynamic topology link failure/repair due to mobility Distributed Environment Bandwidth constrained Energy constrained SIT,IITKGP

5 Categorization of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols
3/25/2017 Categorization of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols SIT,IITKGP

6 Table Driven Routing Protocol
3/25/2017 Table Driven Routing Protocol Proactive. Each node maintains one or more tables containing routing information to every other node in the network. Tables need to be consistent and up-to-date view of the network. Updates propagate through the network SIT,IITKGP

7 Source Initiated On demand routing protocol
3/25/2017 Source Initiated On demand routing protocol Reactive. on-demand style: create routes only when it is desired by the source node When a node requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery process Route is maintained until destination becomes unreachable, or source no longer is interested in destination. SIT,IITKGP

8 Table Driven Routing Protocol
3/25/2017 Table Driven Routing Protocol SIT,IITKGP

9 Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV)
3/25/2017 Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV) Basic Routing Protocol Based on Bellman ford routing algorithm with some improvement Each node maintains a list of all destinations and number of hops to each destination. Each entry is marked with a sequence number. Periodically send table to all neighbors to maintain topology Two ways to update neighbors: Full dump Incremental update SIT,IITKGP

10 Example of DSDV A’s Routing Table Before Change
3/25/2017 Example of DSDV A’s Routing Table Before Change Destination Next Hop Distance Sequence Number A S205_A B 1 S334_B C S198_C D S567_D E 2 S767_E F S45_F A’s Routing Table After Change Destination Next Hop Distance Sequence Number A S304_A B D 3 S424_B C 1 S297_C S687_D E 2 S868_E F S164_F SIT,IITKGP

11 Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)
3/25/2017 Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) Similar to DSDV Based on concept of clusters and cluster heads Routing is done via the cluster heads and gateways A routing table among cluster heads are maintained SIT,IITKGP

12 Example of CGSR Data forwarding steps: from cluster head to
3/25/2017 Example of CGSR Data forwarding steps: from cluster head to cluster head in a hierarchical manner then from cluster head to cluster members between two cluster heads, gateways are used to forward the packets SIT,IITKGP

13 Source Initiated On demand routing protocol
3/25/2017 Source Initiated On demand routing protocol SIT,IITKGP

14 Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV)
3/25/2017 Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) Pure on-demand protocol Node does not need to maintain knowledge of another node unless it communicates with it AODV includes route discovery and route maintenance. AODV minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes on-demand AODV uses only symmetric links because the route reply packet follows the reverse path of route request packet AODV uses hello messages to know its neighbors and to ensure symmetric links SIT,IITKGP

15 3/25/2017 Path discovery In the path discovery (RREQ) phase, source broadcasts RREQ message. Intermediate nodes record in their route tables the address of neighbor from which RREQ is received to establish a reverse path. When RREQ reaches destination or an intermediate node responds by unicasting a route reply (RREP) back to neighbor. SIT,IITKGP

16 Path maintenance If source node moves, reestablish the path.
3/25/2017 Path maintenance If source node moves, reestablish the path. If destination or intermediate node moves, send link failure notification message to each of its active upstream. Then reinitiate path discovery . SIT,IITKGP

17 Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR)
3/25/2017 Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) on-demand A node maintains route cache containing the routes it knows Two main phases Route discovery Route maintenance Basic Operation is similar to AODV. Main difference To use routing cache for link failure. When route discovery phase, node send route request message with its own address. SIT,IITKGP

18 3/25/2017 Example of DSR SIT,IITKGP

19 Hybrid Routing Protocols
3/25/2017 Hybrid Routing Protocols SIT,IITKGP

20 Zone Routing Protocol Hybrid of table-driven and on-demand!!
3/25/2017 Zone Routing Protocol Hybrid of table-driven and on-demand!! From each node, there is a concept of “zone”. Within each zone, the routing is performed in a table-driven manner (proactive). However, a node does not try to keep global routing information. For inter-zone routing, on-demand routing is used. SIT,IITKGP

21 Example of ZPR Three types of nodes: Border Nodes Peripherals Nodes
3/25/2017 Example of ZPR Three types of nodes: Border Nodes Peripherals Nodes Interior Nodes SIT,IITKGP

22 Comparison Parameters On Demand Table Driven Availability of routing
3/25/2017 Comparison Parameters On Demand Table Driven Availability of routing information Available when needed Always available regardless of need Routing philosophy Flat Mostly flat, except for CGSR Periodic route updates Not required Required Coping with mobility Use localized route discovery Inform other nodes to achieve a consistent routing table Signaling traffic generated Grows with increasing mobility Greater than that of on demand routing SIT,IITKGP

23 3/25/2017 References Elizabeth M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh, A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks,Proc. IEEE,1999. David B. Johnson, " Routing in Ad hoc Networks of Mobile Hosts", Proc IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. Nicklas Beijar “Zone Routing Protocol “. issues/issue200407/ html SIT,IITKGP

24 3/25/2017 THANKYOU ? SIT,IITKGP


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