2 1. Describe what a true-breeding plant is. Plants that are true-breeding for a trait always produce offspring with that trait when they self-pollinatepurebreds
3 He first produced true-breeding plants. 2. Outline how Mendel produced plants that had genes for both contrasting traits of a characteristic.He first produced true-breeding plants.Then he crossed the true-breeds.He allowed the offspring (F1) to self-pollinate and this produced contrasting traits in the F2 generation.
4 3. Define the terms dominate and recessive. Dominant- the factor that controls the characteristic; masks or dominates the recessive.
5 5. Differentiate genes from alleles. Gene- a segment of DNA on a chromosomeAllele- alternativeform of a gene
6 6. How did Mendel’s F1 generation plants differ from his F2 generation plants? F1- all offspring exhibited the dominant alleleF2-was a result of allowing F1 offspring to self-pollinate; a 3:1 ratio
7 The disease is recessive and each parent is a carrier; heterozygous 7. Many inherited disorders of humans appear in children of parents who do not have the disorder. How can you explain this?The disease is recessive and each parent is a carrier; heterozygous
8 8. During meiosis, what allows genes located on the same chromosome to separate independently of one another?Crossing-over
9 Section 2: Genetic Crosses Genotype- the alleles that the organism inherits from its parents (PP, Pp or pp)Phenotype- an organism’s appearance
10 Homozygous- when both alleles of a pair are the same; BB or bb (dominant or recessive)Heterozygous- when both alleles are different; Bb
11 Probability The likelihood that a specific event will occur Probability= # of times an event is expected to happen# of times an event could happen
13 Monohybrid crossA cross that looks at just one trait; shows 4 offspring
14 Dihybrid crossTracks two traits at the same time; 16 offspring
15 Test CrossA cross performed between an unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individualHelps to determine to genotype of an individual whose phenotype expresses the dominant trait
16 Example… B b b BB or Bb? (Black) ½ would be expected to be brown if the genotype of your black guinea pig was Bb. None would be brown if the genotype was BB.
17 Complete dominanceAll of the traits Mendel studied exhibited complete dominance. Every phenotype was either dominant or recessive. There was no “in-between”In complete dominance the heterozygous and homozygous dominant genotypes look the same.(BB or Bb)
18 Example:There were no medium sized plants in Mendel’s studies
19 Incomplete dominance Most traits work like this… This is when the phenotype of the heterzygote looks different than either parent