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Esimerkki ► Tutkimusaihe: peruskoulun oppilaiden oppimistulokset, koulumenestys yms. ► Pohdi, millä tutkimustyylillä toteuttaisit ja miten lähestyisit.

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Presentation on theme: "Esimerkki ► Tutkimusaihe: peruskoulun oppilaiden oppimistulokset, koulumenestys yms. ► Pohdi, millä tutkimustyylillä toteuttaisit ja miten lähestyisit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Esimerkki ► Tutkimusaihe: peruskoulun oppilaiden oppimistulokset, koulumenestys yms. ► Pohdi, millä tutkimustyylillä toteuttaisit ja miten lähestyisit aihetta  mikä olisi tutkimusongelma  millaista aineistoa keräisit  miten analysoisit aineistoa  Miten täsmennät tutkimusongelmia?  Kuinka laajennat tutkimusta ”metodologinen triangulaatio”

2 ► survey/korrelaatiotutkimus:  oppimista mittaavat testit peruskoululaisille; vertailu esim. eri alueiden koulujen kesken; miten yhteydessä oppilaiden taustaan ► ex post facto:  ”hyviä” ja ”huonoja” kouluja verrataan toisiinsa; etsitään selitystä sille, miksi tulokset jossakin hyviä; muuttujia, joiden tilastollista yhteyttä tarkastellaan ► kokeellinen tutkimus:  oppilaista koe- ja kontrolliryhmät; alku- ja loppumittaukset; miten opetusmetodi tuottaa tuloksia

3 ► etnografinen:  osallistuminen koulun arkeen; miten ”koulumenestys” rakennetaan koulun käytännöissä, millaisia oppijaidentiteettejä koulu tuottaa ► toimintatutkimus:  koulussa toteutettu toimintamalli; tavoitteena esim. jonkin oppilasryhmän ”auttaminen” ► historiallinen tutkimus:  koulumenestyksestä ja oppimistuloksista käyty keskustelu esim. Opettaja-lehdessä; millainen yhteiskunnallinen kysymys aihe on ollut

4 ► Huom. edellä olevat vain mahdollisia esimerkkejä; voitaisiin tutkia myös toisin ► Samaa aihealuetta voidaan lähteä tutkimaan hyvinkin eri näkökulmista, erilaisilla rajauksilla ja erilaisin tutkimusongelmin ► Tutkimuksen suunnittelussa tärkeää, että tutkimus muodostaa kokonaisuuden – tutkitaan mieluummin rajattua kohdetta tarkasti kuin laajaa kohdetta pintaraapaisulla

5 Research problem (the slides cortesy of Perry den Brok and Jan Vermunt, University of Utrecht) Types of research: 1. Descriptive 2. Survey 3. Case study 4. Explanatory 5. Hypothesis testing 6. (Quasi) experimental 7. Developmental (approach)

6 Research problems Types of research problems: 1. Descriptive Describing components, characteristics, elements, types, categories, approaches, phases, streams, persons, processes, etc. of your topic/theme. 2.Explanatory Finding causes, sources, backgrounds, reasons, motives and consequences of your topic. 3. Predictive Predicting what may happen with your topic in the future.

7 Types of research problems: 4. Comparative Finding differences and similarities between two or more phenomena. 5. Evaluative Judging positive/negative aspects, pre’s/con’s, arguments before/against your topic. 6. Design Designing/advising something that enhances the situation of your topic. Research problems

8 7. Defining Determining summarizing characteristics, the location within a class, collection, theory or domain.

9 Examples ► Descriptive  What are relevant characteristics of motivated Secondary school students in 9th grade? ► Explanatory  Which teacher behaviors explain differences in motivation between Secondary school students in 9th grade classes? ► Predictive  How is the motivation of Secondary school students in 9th grade expected to develop until the end of the school year? ► Comparative  What are similarities and differences in motivation between boys and girls in 9th grade Secondary schools? ► Evaluative  To what degree are teachers in Secondary schools skilled in motivating their students?

10 Examples ► Design  How can teachers in Secondary schools be trained (on the spot) in motivating their students? ► Defining  Can students in 9th grade Secondary schools be typified as internally or externally motivated?

11 Research questions ► Descriptive: 1. What/how is characteristic 1 of X? 2. What/how is characteristic 2 of X? 3. Etc.

12 Research questions ► Explanatory: 1. How/what is X? 2. What says theory (A explaining B) that applies to X? 3. How does X agree on what theory says (about B)? 4. How does X differ on what theory says (about B)? 5. What can we thus say about A as the possible cause of X?

13 Research questions ► Predictive: 1. How/what is X? 2. What says theory (A explaining B) that applies to X? 3. How is X similar to what theory says (about A)? 4. How is X different from what theory says (about A)? 5. What can we thus say about B as the possible consequence of X?

14 Research questions ► Predictive – continued: 1. What/how is X at this moment? 2. What/how was X at earlier moments? 3. How is X at this moment similar to X at earlier moments? 4. How is X at this moment different from X at earlier moments? 5. What can we thus say about X in the future?

15 Research questions ► Comparative: 1. How/what is X? 2. How/what is Y? 3. How is X similar to Y? 4. How is X different from Y? 5. What can we thus say about the differences/similarities between X and Y?

16 Research questions ► Evaluative: 1. When do we judge X as E? Based on what is X regarded as E? 2. How/what is X? 3. How does X agree with norm E? 4. How does X differ from norm E? 5. What can we thus say about the positive/negative elements of X?

17 Research questions ► Designing: 1. How/what should X be? 2. How/what is X? 3. How does X differ from the desired image? 4. What causes X to differ? 5. What can be done to make X more like the way X should be? 6. What criteria should be used in judging the approach of 5 ?

18 7. How does the approach differ from the criteria? 8. How does the approach agree with the criteria? 9. What can we thus say about the approach to handle X?

19 Research questions ► Defining: 1. How/what is the family/class of X? 2. How/what is X? 3. What are similarities between X and its family/class? 4. What are differences between X and other members of its family/class? 5. What can we thus say about the definition of X?


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