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Do Fathers Matter to Adolescents? Parents And Youth Study (PAYS) Arizona State University.

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1 Do Fathers Matter to Adolescents? Parents And Youth Study (PAYS) Arizona State University

2 Narrative Assessment of Parent-Child Relationships Amy A. Weimer Parents And Youth Study (PAYS) Arizona State University

3 Purpose To assess the child’s view of the parent- relationship through the use of a narrative instrument. To examine the relationship of the narratives to other measures of parent-child relationships To explore the narratives for any family type and ethnic differences

4 Hypotheses Adolescents’ narratives will be informative about parent-child relationships. Narratives will correlate with related measures including the Mattering scale & Child Reports of Parent Behavior Index (CRPBI).

5 Method Participants: 393 Mexican- and Anglo-American adolescents (self-identified) Ages 11 to 14 years

6 Measures Interviews were conducted individually in homes in child’s language of preference (English or Spanish) 1.) Adolescent Narratives: Children were asked to describe their relationships with parents: (a) Resident fathers (b) Mothers (c) Non-residential fathers

7 Sample items about (step)father: Think of your relationship with your (dad/step- dad), how he treats you, what he does for you, how he talks to you and about the time he spends with you. Tell me what kind of person he is and how you two get along together. Think of it as the story of your (dad/step-dad) and your relationship with him.

8 Coding Narratives Auto-recorded & transcribed Broken into smallest possible meaningful statements: 6 criteria Coded into Dimensions: Investment (IN)- child’s evaluation of the time and energy the parent invests in relationship Emotional Quality (EQ)- positive vs negative emotions the child feels toward relationship Responsiveness (RE)- child’s evaluation of the parent’s responsiveness to his/her needs or requests Provisioning (PR)- child’s evaluation of parent as provider Rated as high, medium, low on each dimension

9 Narrative about Resident dad [My father] is one of those people who likes to do things for others, who is very nice (EQ3) // and respectful (EQ3) // and he is just a good person (EQ3). // If you have a problem, like he will be the one who will sit down and talk to you about it (RE3), // and if you need help with anything, he will always be there to help. (RE3) // And even when he is busy, he will take the time to be with you (IN3).

10 Narrative about Mom My mom’s nice to me, (EQ3) // but we don’t spend a lot of time together (IN2). // She's always on the computer playing free cell and every time I go up there and try to talk to her she gets annoyed and tells me to go away (EQ1, RE1). I mean, our relationship is good, but she's always having mood swings (EQ2). I mean, she’s nice to me, most of the time, (EQ2) it’s just like, we just don't do anything together (IN1).

11 Narrative about Non-residential dad My birth father lives in another country. He, his, all the family members on his side are shorter than me. We get along (EQ3) // and we have a good relationship (EQ3). // He buys me shoes (RE3, PR3) // or he buys me other things I need (RE3, PR3). // He, umm, he wants me to get a better life than he has right now. // He, he likes to be around me (EQ3) // and I like to be around him (EQ3).

12 Reliability of Coding 6 Coders Each coded 60 “Gold Standard” narratives Computed correlations with Gold Standard for each dimension Example –Investment =.91 –Emotional Quality =.94 –Responsiveness =.84 All coders passed test of coding ability (.80)

13 Sample Items included: 1.My (dad/step-dad) really cares about me. 2.I believe I really matter to my (dad/step- dad ) 2.) Mattering

14 3.) Child Reports of Parent Behavior Index (CRPBI) 1.Acceptance Your (dad/step-dad) made you feel better after talking over your worries with him. 2.Rejection Your (dad/step-dad) was not very patient with you. 3.Consistent Discipline Your (dad/step-dad) soon forgot a rule he had made.

15 Results Preliminary analyses were conducted to examine narratives that have been coded to date: 549 Narratives: –231 about resident fathers –232 about mothers –86 about non-residential fathers Random subset of the total narratives from the PAYS project.

16 Intercorrelations among:  Investment (IN)  Emotional quality (EQ) and,  Responsiveness (RE) for each narrative type Correlated each of these 3 dimensions and the total mattering scale score for each narrative type Multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to examine whether the 3 dimensions of the narratives about each parent differed across family type and by ethnicity Results are presented in Tables 1-3

17 Examined the relationship of the general average of the dimensions in narratives with:  Mattering Scale  Child Report of Parent Behavior Index (CRPBI): Acceptance Rejection Consistent Discipline Results are presented in Table 4

18 Table 1: Correlations and Means for Adolescents’ Narratives about Resident Fathers Anglo-American Mexican-American Intact StepIntactStep INEQRE(N=64)(N=52)(N=65)(N=50) Sig.Effects* IN Step >Int; AA > MA EQ.37*** RE.24**.41*** Mat.37***.43***.40*** *p <.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001 Note: There were no significant interaction effects (Family Type X Ethnicity) IN = Investment EQ = Emotional Quality RE = Responsiveness Mat = Mattering

19 Table 2: Correlations and Means for Adolescents’ Narratives About Mothers Anglo-AmericanMexican-American IntactStepIntactStep INEQRE(N=73)(N=59)(N=58) (N=42) Sig.Effects* IN AA > MA EQ.33*** Int > Step RE.21*.45*** Int > Step Mat.40***.43***.26*** * p <.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001 Note: There were no significant interaction effects (Family Type X Ethnicity) IN = Investment EQ = Emotional Quality RE = Responsiveness Mat = Mattering

20 Table 3: Correlations and Means for Adolescents’ Narratives About Non-residential Fathers Anglo-American Mexican-American INEQRE(N=51)(N=35) IN EQ.77*** RE.55***.68*** Mat.63***.64***.70*** p <.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001 Note: There were no significant effects IN = Investment EQ = Emotional Quality RE = Responsiveness Mat = Mattering

21 Table 4: Correlations of Narratives with Mattering Scale and Child Report of Parent Behavior Index (CRPBI) for Each Parent CRPBI MatteringAcceptanceRejectionConsistent Discipline Narratives about Resident dad.53***.55***-.42***.24*** Narratives about Mother.49***.56***-.43***.23*** Narratives about Bio-dad.71***.62***-.63***.40* p <.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001

22 Discussion Correlations: Dimensions of investment, emotional quality, and responsiveness positively correlated with the mattering scale for all three types of narratives (resident dads, moms, and bio-dads). Average narrative scores (across all dimensions) positively correlated with the mattering scale, and with the acceptance and consistent discipline scales of the CRPBI for all three types of narratives about resident dads, moms, and bio-dads. Average narrative scores (across all dimensions) negatively correlated with the rejection scale of the CRPBI. –Validates narratives as a measure of parent-child relationships –Suggests that narratives offer further information about parent- child relations than survey data alone can offer.

23 Mean Differences Between Family Types in Narratives about Resident Fathers Stepfamilies > Intact in investment Suggests differences among family types in father-child relations Perhaps stepfathers who are building a new relationship make a point to spend time with child, whereas intact families function as a unit. Similarities in EQ & RE suggest that these are equally important aspects of relationships across family types

24 Mean Differences Between Ethnic Groups in Narratives about Resident Fathers AA > MA adolescents in investment Suggests differences in father-child relations among Anglo- and Mexican-American families May be due to being away at work; need to examine SES differences Similarities in EQ & RE suggest that these are equally important aspects of relationships with dads across ethnic groups

25 Intact > Step in Emotional Quality & Responsiveness Suggests differences among family types in mother- child relations Perhaps mothers attending to the needs of their new partner have less time to meet the needs of the child Similarities in investment suggest time with child was similar across family types Mean Differences Between Family Types in Narratives about Mothers

26 Mean Differences Between Ethnic Groups in Narratives about Mothers AA > MA in investment Suggests differences in mother-child relations among Anglo- and Mexican-American families Perhaps due to being away at work; need to examine SES differences Similarities in EQ & RE suggest that these are equally important aspects of relationships with mom across ethnic groups

27 AA=MA families across all dimensions All 3 dimensions are equally important aspects of non-residential father-child relationships among Anglo- and Mexican-American families Small sample size Similarities in Dimensions for Narratives about non-residential Fathers

28 Limitations and future directions: These results are preliminary Examine effects after covarying out socioeconomic differences among the groups Explore gender differences Use measure of acculturation Examine how narratives predict child outcomes

29 Conclusions This method of assessment using children’s narratives is a useful new way of examining parent child relationships They relate well with other measures of parenting Future research will allow us to explore how they might predict child outcomes

30 Acknowledgments: I thank Dr. William Fabricius, Dr. Jeff Cookston, Dr. Sanford Braver, Dr. Delia Saenz, and all who were involved in this project. I also thank all of the undergraduate assistants in the PAYS coding lab at Arizona State University for their assistance with transcription and coding. Thank You

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32 Clorinda Eileen Schenck Parents And Youth Study (PAYS) Arizona State University Does “Mattering” Matter?: An exploration of the role of parental perceived significance in adolescent mental health.

33 Rationale: Why parental mattering? Relative paucity of literature available on the role of the quality of the father-child relationship and child mental health, especially nontraditional fathers (e.g. stepfathers, nonresidential biological fathers) Relative paucity of literature available on the role of the quality of the father-child relationship and child mental health, especially nontraditional fathers (e.g. stepfathers, nonresidential biological fathers) Next to no literature on adolescents’ perceptions or beliefs about how much they matter to their parents (mother, father, or stepfather), or how “mattering” relates to adolescent mental health. Next to no literature on adolescents’ perceptions or beliefs about how much they matter to their parents (mother, father, or stepfather), or how “mattering” relates to adolescent mental health.

34 What is “Mattering?” Rosenberg & McCullough (1981): “inferred significance” Rosenberg & McCullough (1981): “inferred significance” Reciprocal of “significant other”: the degree to which we believe we matter or are important to another person Reciprocal of “significant other”: the degree to which we believe we matter or are important to another person Parental Mattering: degree to which an adolescent perceives he/she matters to his/her parents Parental Mattering: degree to which an adolescent perceives he/she matters to his/her parents

35 Mattering and Mental Health Rosenberg & McCullough (1981): Mattering was related to mental health outcomes: self-esteem, depression, anxiety, delinquent behavior. Rosenberg & McCullough (1981): Mattering was related to mental health outcomes: self-esteem, depression, anxiety, delinquent behavior. Marshall (2004): Mattering was predictive of adolescent psychological well-being: substance abuse, disobeying parents, antisocial behavior Marshall (2004): Mattering was predictive of adolescent psychological well-being: substance abuse, disobeying parents, antisocial behavior Parental mattering and its relation to adolescent mental health has remained relatively untouched Parental mattering and its relation to adolescent mental health has remained relatively untouched No known investigation has explored mattering in the context of both intact and stepfather families No known investigation has explored mattering in the context of both intact and stepfather families

36 Research Questions: Research Question 1: Research Question 1: Does how much adolescents believe they matter to each of their parents differ by family type? Does how much adolescents believe they matter to each of their parents differ by family type? Research Question 2: Research Question 2: Within family type, does how much adolescents believe they matter differ by parent type? Within family type, does how much adolescents believe they matter differ by parent type? Research Question 3: Research Question 3: Is mattering significantly related to negative mental health outcomes? Is mattering significantly related to negative mental health outcomes?

37 Theoretical Basis for Predictions Length of Relationship Length of Relationship Adolescents will be more likely to perceive higher levels of mattering to a parent with whom they have had a relationship throughout their life (e.g., mothers and fathers in intact families) Adolescents will be more likely to perceive higher levels of mattering to a parent with whom they have had a relationship throughout their life (e.g., mothers and fathers in intact families) Residential Status Residential Status Adolescents will be more likely to perceive higher levels of mattering to a parent with whom they live, rather than to one with whom they do NOT live (e.g., mother vs. nonresidential father in stepfamily) Adolescents will be more likely to perceive higher levels of mattering to a parent with whom they live, rather than to one with whom they do NOT live (e.g., mother vs. nonresidential father in stepfamily)

38 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step):

39 Hypotheses Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step

40 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step

41 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step

42 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Mattering by parent type: Mattering by parent type:

43 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Mattering by parent type: Mattering by parent type: Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference

44 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Mattering by parent type: Mattering by parent type: Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference Step: Mother > Stepfather Step: Mother > Stepfather

45 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Mattering by parent type: Mattering by parent type: Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference Step: Mother > Stepfather Step: Mother > Stepfather Step: Mother > Nonresidential Biological Father Step: Mother > Nonresidential Biological Father

46 Hypotheses Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mattering by family type (Intact vs Step): Mothers: Intact = Step Mothers: Intact = Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Residential Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Biological Fathers: Intact > Step Mattering by parent type: Mattering by parent type: Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference Intact: Mother vs Father: No difference Step: Mother > Stepfather Step: Mother > Stepfather Step: Mother > Nonresidential Biological Father Step: Mother > Nonresidential Biological Father Step: Stepfather = Nonresidential Biological Father Step: Stepfather = Nonresidential Biological Father

47 Hypotheses Cont. Mattering and Mental Health: Mattering and Mental Health:

48 Hypotheses Cont. Mattering and Mental Health: Mattering and Mental Health: Mattering will be universally significantly negatively correlated with internalizing and externalizing disorders across family and parent type. Mattering will be universally significantly negatively correlated with internalizing and externalizing disorders across family and parent type.

49 Mattering: Measure 7-item, 5 point likert scale 7-item, 5 point likert scale 1 = Strongly Disagree; 2 = Mildly Disagree; 3 = Unsure; 4 = Mildly Agree; 5 = Strongly Agree 1 = Strongly Disagree; 2 = Mildly Disagree; 3 = Unsure; 4 = Mildly Agree; 5 = Strongly Agree Cronbach’s Alpha: Cronbach’s Alpha: Mother:.77 Mother:.77 Residential Father:.86 Residential Father:.86 Nonresidential Father:.95 Nonresidential Father:.95 Minimum Score: 7; Maximum Score: 35 Minimum Score: 7; Maximum Score: 35

50 Mattering Items: My (mom/dad/step-dad) really cares about me. My (mom/dad/step-dad) really cares about me. I believe I really matter to my (mom/dad/step-dad). I believe I really matter to my (mom/dad/step-dad). I think my (mom/dad/step-dad) cares about other people more than me. ( REVERSE ) I think my (mom/dad/step-dad) cares about other people more than me. ( REVERSE ) I’m not that important to my (mom/dad/step-dad). ( REVERSE ) I’m not that important to my (mom/dad/step-dad). ( REVERSE ) There are lot’s of things in my (mom/dad/step-dad)’s life that matter more to him/her than I do. ( REVERSE ) There are lot’s of things in my (mom/dad/step-dad)’s life that matter more to him/her than I do. ( REVERSE ) I know my (mom/dad/step-dad) loves me. I know my (mom/dad/step-dad) loves me. I am one of the most important things in the world to my (mom/dad/step-dad). I am one of the most important things in the world to my (mom/dad/step-dad).

51 Cronbach’s Measure Alpha Sample Item(s) Cronbach’s Measure Alpha Sample Item(s) 1. Depression: CDI In the past month: Child: 8-Items.671. Things bothered me all the time 2. Things bothered me many times Child: 8-Items.671. Things bothered me all the time 2. Things bothered me many times 3. Things bothered me once in awhile 3. Things bothered me once in awhile 2. Anxiety: RCMAS Child: 6-items.651. In the past month you worried about what was going to happen Child: 6-items.651. In the past month you worried about what was going to happen 3. Internalizing: BPI.84 Teacher: 9-items 1. Was withdrawn, did not get involved with others. Teacher: 9-items 1. Was withdrawn, did not get involved with others. 4. Externalizing: BPI Child: 12-items In the past month you were mean to others. Child: 12-items In the past month you were mean to others. Teacher: 18-items Was cruel, bullied, or was mean to others. Teacher: 18-items Was cruel, bullied, or was mean to others.

52 Statistical Analyses Between and Within-Group T-Tests Between and Within-Group T-Tests Research Questions 1 and 2: Mattering by Family Type & Parent Type Research Questions 1 and 2: Mattering by Family Type & Parent Type Bivariate Correlations Bivariate Correlations Research Question 3: Relationship between Mattering and Negative Mental Health Outcomes Research Question 3: Relationship between Mattering and Negative Mental Health Outcomes

53 IntactStep MeasureN M (SD)N M (SD)t Mattering (M) (3.05) (3.40) Mattering (RF) *** (3.19) (5.40) Mattering (BF) *** (3.19) (8.82) Note. M = Mother; RF = Residential Father; BF = Biological Father *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

54 Family TypeMotherFather/Stepfather Nonresidential Fathert Intact Step *** Step *** Step ** *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

55 Mattering MeasureMother Residential Father Nonresidential Father Anxiety (Child) -.14** -.22*** -.13 Depression (Child) -.22*** -.31*** -.29*** Internalizing (Teacher) -.13* -.20*** -.23* Externalizing (Child) -.25*** -.38*** -.17* Externalizing (Teacher) -.14** -.26*** -.13 *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

56 Mattering Measure Intact M F Anxiety (Child) *** Depression (Child)-.19**-.32*** Internalizing (Teacher) -.15*-.24*** Externalizing (Child)-.26***-.40*** Externalizing (Teacher) ** Note. Intact: M = Mother; F = Father *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

57 Mattering Measure Intact M F Anxiety (Child) *** Depression (Child)-.19**-.32*** Internalizing (Teacher) -.15*-.24*** Externalizing (Child)-.26***-.40*** Externalizing (Teacher) ** Note. Intact: M = Mother; F = Father *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

58 Mattering Measure Intact M F Anxiety (Child) *** Depression (Child)-.19**-.32*** Internalizing (Teacher) -.15*-.24*** Externalizing (Child)-.26***-.40*** Externalizing (Teacher) ** Note. Intact: M = Mother; F = Father *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

59 Mattering Measure Intact M FM Step S NF Anxiety (Child) *** -.19* -.16*-.13 Depression (Child)-.19**-.32*** -.23** -.26***-.29*** Internalizing (Teacher) -.15*-.24*** * Externalizing (Child)-.26***-.40*** -.23** -.33***-.17* Externalizing (Teacher) ** -.19* -.24**-.11 Note. Intact: M = Mother; F = Father Step: M = Mother; S = Stepfather; NF = Nonresidential Father *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

60 Mattering Measure Intact M FM Step S NF Anxiety (Child) *** -.19* -.16*-.13 Depression (Child)-.19**-.32*** -.23** -.26***-.29*** Internalizing (Teacher) -.15*-.24*** * Externalizing (Child)-.26***-.40*** -.23** -.33***-.17* Externalizing (Teacher) ** -.19* -.24**-.11 Note. Intact: M = Mother; F = Father Step: M = Mother; S = Stepfather; NF = Nonresidential Father *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

61 Discussion Results for research questions 1 & 2 generally consistent with hypotheses Results for research questions 1 & 2 generally consistent with hypotheses Exception: Adolescents believe they matter more to their stepfathers than to their nonresidential fathers Exception: Adolescents believe they matter more to their stepfathers than to their nonresidential fathers Adolescents spend more time with and have greater opportunity to develop sense of mattering with a residential versus nonresidential parent Adolescents spend more time with and have greater opportunity to develop sense of mattering with a residential versus nonresidential parent More variation in mattering to nonresidential father: moderating variables? More variation in mattering to nonresidential father: moderating variables?

62 Discussion Cont. Research Question 3: Mattering & Mental Health Research Question 3: Mattering & Mental Health In general, mattering more to parents is associated with better mental health outcomes for adolescents In general, mattering more to parents is associated with better mental health outcomes for adolescents Results varied by family, parent, and outcome type Results varied by family, parent, and outcome type Intact Families: Intact Families: Mothers: mattering was NOT related to anxiety or teacher report of externalizing behaviors Mothers: mattering was NOT related to anxiety or teacher report of externalizing behaviors Mattering as a “burden” (Rosenberg & McCullough 1981): may cancel out any “protective” effect of mattering Mattering as a “burden” (Rosenberg & McCullough 1981): may cancel out any “protective” effect of mattering

63 Discussion Cont. Research Question 3: Mattering & Mental Health Research Question 3: Mattering & Mental Health Intact Families: Intact Families: Mattering to fathers was universally related to adolescent mental health: adolescent well-being may be more closely tied to the father-child relationship in intact families Mattering to fathers was universally related to adolescent mental health: adolescent well-being may be more closely tied to the father-child relationship in intact families Stepfamilies: Stepfamilies: Mothers and Stepfathers: mattering was related to all outcomes except internalizing behaviors Mothers and Stepfathers: mattering was related to all outcomes except internalizing behaviors More robust relationship for mothers, less robust for stepfathers, compared to intact families More robust relationship for mothers, less robust for stepfathers, compared to intact families

64 Discussion Cont. Research Question 3: Mattering & Mental Health Research Question 3: Mattering & Mental Health Stepfamilies: Stepfamilies: Nonresidential fathers: mattering was NOT related to anxiety or teacher report of externalizing behaviors Nonresidential fathers: mattering was NOT related to anxiety or teacher report of externalizing behaviors Less robust relationship as compared to other parents in stepfamilies Less robust relationship as compared to other parents in stepfamilies Followed same pattern as mattering to mother in intact families Followed same pattern as mattering to mother in intact families Quality of relationship with nonresidential father may have direct implications for some adolescent mental health outcomes Quality of relationship with nonresidential father may have direct implications for some adolescent mental health outcomes

65 Current Contributions Contributions to the literature: Contributions to the literature: Further exploring mattering (a uniquely perceptual measure of the parent-child relationship) in intact and stepfamilies, and its relationship to important negative mental health outcomes Further exploring mattering (a uniquely perceptual measure of the parent-child relationship) in intact and stepfamilies, and its relationship to important negative mental health outcomes Providing additional evidence that quality of relationship between adolescents and fathers of all types may have important implications for adolescent mental health Providing additional evidence that quality of relationship between adolescents and fathers of all types may have important implications for adolescent mental health

66 Future Directions Explore gender differences, gender match in mattering Explore gender differences, gender match in mattering Empirically examine the contribution of mattering over and above standard measures of parent-child relationship (e.g., CRPBI acceptance/rejection) Empirically examine the contribution of mattering over and above standard measures of parent-child relationship (e.g., CRPBI acceptance/rejection) Accumulation vs Substitution vs Loss Model of Fathers (White & Gilbreth 2001): Accumulation vs Substitution vs Loss Model of Fathers (White & Gilbreth 2001): Controlling for mattering to mothers, does mattering to one, both, or neither father contribute to adolescent mental health? Controlling for mattering to mothers, does mattering to one, both, or neither father contribute to adolescent mental health?

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68 Adolescent Adjustment in Stepfamilies and Intact Families Karina R. Sokol Parents And Youth Study (PAYS) Arizona State University

69 Why Study Stepfamilies? Almost 1/3 of children will acquire stepfathers sometime in their lives (e.g. Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 2000) Recent data reveals that children in stepfather families are at double the normal risk for mental health disorders (e.g. Bray, 1999)

70 Overview Literature Why Study Stepfamilies? Why Use Multiple Reporters? Research Questions Method Measures Hypotheses Results Externalizing Behavior Internalizing Behavior Discussion

71 Why Use Multiple Reporters? To eliminate shared method variance To be more precise To clarify previous literature

72 Research Questions Are children from stepfamilies less well adjusted compared to children from intact families? Do different reporters provide different information regarding adjustment? Do gender differences exist in adjustment?

73 Measures Externalizing Behavior Parent and Teacher Report: BPI Adolescent Report: BPI Internalizing Behavior Parent and Teacher Report: BPI Adolescent Report: CDI and RCMAS

74 Hypotheses Adolescents from stepfamilies will have more externalizing and internalizing behavior than adolescents from intact families Reporters will provide significantly different information regarding externalizing and internalizing behavior Girls will have more internalizing behavior and boys will have more externalizing behavior

75 Externalizing Behavior Results

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78 Internalizing Behavior Results

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81 Discussion Findings Main Effects Interactions Context Differences? Inaccurate Reporter(s)? Extensions Longitudinal studies What does each reporter’s information predict?

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83 Differential Psychological Outcomes Across Ethnicity Diana Naranjo Parents And Youth Study (PAYS) Arizona State University

84 Importance of Exploring Ethnic Differences Largest growing ethnic group in US Largest growing ethnic group in US Mexican American’s represent 60% (US Census 2002) Mexican American’s represent 60% (US Census 2002)

85 Mexican American Psychological Outcomes Elevated risk for psychological outcomes Elevated risk for psychological outcomes Higher rates of depression (e.g. Siegel et al., 1998) Higher rates of depression (e.g. Siegel et al., 1998)

86 Parent-Child Relationships Overall Parent-Child Relationship Overall Parent-Child Relationship Mattering to Parents Mattering to Parents Why would there be differences across ethnicity? Why would there be differences across ethnicity?

87 Major Research Questions Do differences across ethnicity surface as early as 7 th grade? Do differences across ethnicity surface as early as 7 th grade? Are there differences in both internalizing and externalizing outcomes? Are there differences in both internalizing and externalizing outcomes? Are there differences across ethnicity in the overall parent-child relationship? Are there differences across ethnicity in the overall parent-child relationship? Are there differences across ethnicity on perceived mattering to parents? Are there differences across ethnicity on perceived mattering to parents?

88 Ethnicity Hypotheses Mexican Americans (MA’s) will exhibit higher levels of both internalizing & externalizing outcomes than European Americans (EA’s) Mexican Americans (MA’s) will exhibit higher levels of both internalizing & externalizing outcomes than European Americans (EA’s) MA’s will express better overall relationships than EA’s MA’s will express better overall relationships than EA’s MA’s will express mattering more to parents than EA’s MA’s will express mattering more to parents than EA’s

89 Familism Definition: Traditional Latino Family Values Definition: Traditional Latino Family Values Four Components: Four Components: Demographic Demographic Structural Structural Behavioral Behavioral Normative Normative

90 Scales Adolescent Internalizing Behaviors Adolescent Internalizing Behaviors Example Item: “Things bothered me all the time” Example Item: “Things bothered me all the time” Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors Example Item: “In the past month you argued a lot” Example Item: “In the past month you argued a lot” Overall Parent-Child Relationship Overall Parent-Child Relationship Example Item: “How well do you get along with your (mom/dad)” Example Item: “How well do you get along with your (mom/dad)” Perceived Mattering to Parents Perceived Mattering to Parents Example Item: “I believe I really matter to my (mom/dad)” Example Item: “I believe I really matter to my (mom/dad)”

91 Method of Analysis We used Univariate ANOVA’s to analyze between group differences We used Univariate ANOVA’s to analyze between group differences Ethnicity was the only predictor Ethnicity was the only predictor SEM was controlled for in all analysis SEM was controlled for in all analysis people in each group people in each group

92 Internalizing Outcomes by Ethnicity European American Mexican American MeasureMean(SD)Mean(SD) InternalizingSelf-Report9.21(1.92)9.29(1.71) Internalizing Teacher-Report 12.6(4.45)13.1(4.66) *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

93 Externalizing Outcomes by Ethnicity European American Mexican American MeasureMean(SD)Mean(SD) Externalizing**Self-Report15.62(3.80)16.75(3.84) Externalizing** Teacher-Report 26.6(10.20)29.4(12.24) *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

94 Report of Overall Parent Child Relationship by Ethnicity European American Mexican American MeasureReporterMean(SD)Mean(SD) Overall Mother-Child Relationship** Child.223(1.64)-.230(1.86) Overall Mother-Child Relationship*** Mother.369(1.63)-.375(1.89) Overall Resident Dad-Child Relationship* Child.179(1.63)-.200(1.97) Overall Resident Dad-Child Relationship Resident Dad.046(1.92)-.049(1.75) *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

95 Child’s Perceived Mattering by Ethnicity European American Mexican American MeasureMean(SD)Mean(SD) Perceived Mattering to Mother*** 33.42(2.79)32.36(3.52) Perceived Mattering to Resident Dad*** 32.24(4.06)30.47(4.88) *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.

96 Original Ethnicity Hypotheses Mexican Americans (MA’s) will exhibit higher levels of both internalizing & externalizing outcomes than European Americans (EA’s) Mexican Americans (MA’s) will exhibit higher levels of both internalizing & externalizing outcomes than European Americans (EA’s) MA’s will express better overall relationships than EA’s MA’s will express better overall relationships than EA’s MA’s will express mattering more to parents than EA’s MA’s will express mattering more to parents than EA’s

97 Discussion There are differences as early as 7 th grade across ethnicity for externalizing behaviors There are differences as early as 7 th grade across ethnicity for externalizing behaviors EA teens reported higher overall relationships with mother’s and resident dad’s EA teens reported higher overall relationships with mother’s and resident dad’s EA teens reported mattering more to mother’s, resident dad’s and bio-dad’s EA teens reported mattering more to mother’s, resident dad’s and bio-dad’s

98 References U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 2002, Ethnic and Hispanic Statistics Branch, Population Division. Internet Release date: June 18, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 2002, Ethnic and Hispanic Statistics Branch, Population Division. Internet Release date: June 18, Siegel, J.M., Aneshensel, C.S., Taub, B., Cantwell, D.P., & Driscoll, A.K. (1998). Adolescent depressed mood in a multiethnic sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 4, Siegel, J.M., Aneshensel, C.S., Taub, B., Cantwell, D.P., & Driscoll, A.K. (1998). Adolescent depressed mood in a multiethnic sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 4, Hankin, B.L., Abramson, L.Y., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Angell, K.E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 1, Hankin, B.L., Abramson, L.Y., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Angell, K.E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 1, Kovacs, M. (1992). Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) manual. North Tonawanda NY: Multi-Health Systems. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) manual. North Tonawanda NY: Multi-Health Systems. Reynolds, C.R. & Paget, K.D. (1981). Factor analysis of the revised children’s manifest anxiety scale for blacks, whites, males, and females with a national normative sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 3, Reynolds, C.R. & Paget, K.D. (1981). Factor analysis of the revised children’s manifest anxiety scale for blacks, whites, males, and females with a national normative sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 3, Achenback, T., & Edelbrock C. (1981). Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged four through sixteen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial No. 188 Achenback, T., & Edelbrock C. (1981). Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged four through sixteen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial No. 188


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