Presentation on theme: "Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Does the division of domestic labour differ after a marital separation ? Anne Solaz INED."— Presentation transcript:
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Does the division of domestic labour differ after a marital separation ? Anne Solaz INED
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Theories of work specialization within the couple Economic framework specialization within marriage= main gain to marriage (Becker) For any couple, the initial gain to specialization will be reinforced over time as husbands and wife acquire skills specific to market or domestic sector. Gender role theory Gender social norms in the society and family explain the specialization None of those theories predicts how would be and change the work division in a repartnering union comparing to the first one.
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Specialization becomes dangerous in case of divorce Specialization increases the divorce cost Exchange of marriage specific skills no more possible Human capital loss for divorced women who specialize in home production (wage penalty due to interruptions, less easier return to the labour market…) Difficulties for divorced fathers to face alone with parental tasks
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 High degree of specialization may be a source of disagreement Housework division plays on divorce risk (Nock & Brining 2002) … amplified in case of unfair feeling about household division (Craig & Sawrikar). Among couple regular disagreements, housework division and child education are the more frequent
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Main couple disagreements topics
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 AIM : Do we observe different housework division after a marital separation ? PREVIOUS RESULTS The effect of status of chidren (stepchildren or not) has little effect on parental tasks division (Rapoport Lebourdais 2001) Women’s second union are more egalitarian (Sullivan 1997) but not men’s one (BHPS). Remaried men participate more than men in their first marriage (Ishii-Kuntz & Coltrane1992)
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 PROBLEM : No panel data on time use. No information on marital history in time use data that allows to distinguish union type, union duration. SOLUTION: We use a demographic survey with subjective data on housework division
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 3 main questions 1) May the housework and parental tasks division be measured by subjective questions? 2) Is there a dynamic in specialization within the couple? 3) Does first couple failure affect the new repartnering organization?
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Data French Generation and Gender Survey (first wave Erfi-GGS 2005) Sample : all couples (reduced to parents for parental tasks) Only one partner interviewed about the sharing Size: 5500
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Female overimplication indicators From subjective questions about some regular activities “Who in your household does theses tasks? “ always me(+2), usually me(+1), me or my partner equally(0), usually my partner (-1), always my partner(-2), someone else (0) We are not interesting in total time but in the sharing, inequality between partners 3 Indicators of inequality in 8 domestic tasks (preparing meals, doing the dishes, shopping for food, vacuum-cleaning, ironing, doing small repairs, paying bills and keeping financial records, organising social activities) 6 parental tasks (dressing, putting the children to bed, staying at home when ill, playing, homework, child transportation) 4 decision process (routine purchase, occasional expensive purchase, the way children are raised, social life and leisure)
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 May the housework division be measured by subjective questions?
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Index of female overimplication in domestic tasks according sex
… the presence of the partner during interview guaranties similar indicators
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 2) Is there a dynamic in specialization within the couple?
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Housework division according to generation and couple duration
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 3) Does first couple failure affect the new repartnering organization?. Female overimplication in domestic, parental tasks and decisions according union order
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Female overimplication in domestic according to union order and generation.
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Econometric approach First step : estimation of a probit on the probability of having a second union Second step: effect of union order on housework division by IV(Instrumental variables)
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Second union probability (probit)
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Regression (OLS and IV) on the 3 indicators of female overimplication
Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 CONCLUSION Division of housework may be correctly measured by subjective indicators if we control for respondent's sex and presence of partner during the interview. Specialization in housework increases with union duration Male second unions seem a little more egalitarian for division of housework, all other things being equal, but sharing of parental tasks and decision-making are similar in first and second unions. Gender differences may come from different assortative matching for men and women in second union
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Groupe GEPP OFCE - 28/6/ 2007 Men who will separate (between 2005 and 2008) had different domestic tasks division (in 2005)?