Presentation on theme: "1 chanel. 2 Introduction Perfume adverts in general and Chanel adverts in particular have long used star status to sell product. In 2005/6, Chanel brought."— Presentation transcript:
2 Introduction Perfume adverts in general and Chanel adverts in particular have long used star status to sell product. In 2005/6, Chanel brought together Baz Luhrman (director) and Nicole Kidman (star) made ad referencing their successful collaboration in Moulin Rouge (2001) (though Luhrman claimed he based the advert on Roman Holiday (d William Wyler, with Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck)
3 Introduction Cost $42 million ($2 million to Kidman) Shown in cinemas and specialist film channels on TV with edited version for network TV
4 Introduction Cost $42 million ($2 million to Kidman) Young man played by Brazilian actor Rodrigo Santono Shown in cinemas and specialist film channels on TV with edited version for network TV and on Chanel4/Film4 in UK
5 Introduction Analysis of advert using Key Aspects of Categories/Genre, Narrative. Representation, Audience and Institution. Language is not treated separately but integrated into other Key Aspects
6 Although we don t generally think of adverts belonging to own genres, perfume adverts such as Chanel No. 5 can be sub-divided into sub-genres showing how far discourses create meanings: In this case the discourses of romance and celebrity. Genre
7 Many contemporary adverts use celebrities which reflect upon way celebrity is represented in media. With perfume adverts, celebrity promises fame and romance. Genre
8 Use of celebrity endorsement not new. Genre Film stars such as Barbara Stanwyck, June Alyson and Marilyn Munroe all appeared in adverts for Lustre-Creme shampoo in 1950s to connote glamour.
9 Romance Love story, brief encounter - loss of love based on stories like The Lady of the Camellias (Alexandre Dumas, 1852) and Moulin Rouge (2001) Genre
10 Inside every celebrity there is an ordinary person - (in this case a dancer to reference the Moulin Rouge character) - who could fall in love with an ordinary person whom they meet by chance Genre Mixed with more optimistic theme of films like Notting Hill (1999)
11 Generic conventions - of love at first sight, the barriers to love, the memories of love, doing one s duty - all encapsulated in advert. Genre Kiss is a central code to this genre (but - as a romance, sex is not). Brief Encounter (1945)
12 Fairy story theme that every woman would want to find their prince even if he is a pauper Genre Like Cinderella, ball gown becomes an ordinary outfit in magical flourish using appeal to magic solutions - but there is twist in that this does not hinder romance but allows it to flourish.
13 (Chanel had based a previous advert on another fairy story, that of Red Riding Hood, so these references to the fairy story subtly link the two campaigns together) Genre
14 As with all stories, series of enigmas and answers help to move narrative forward. Key enigmas to be resolved are: Where can you find real love? Should you abandon career for Love? Narrative
15 As narrative unfolds this answered through micro questions such as: Who is she? (We find out the most famous....) Who is she running from? (We see the paparazzi... and so on.) Narrative
16 The non-diegetic male voice-over helps to tell narrative from point-of-view of the male hero and so positions our identification with both protagonists. Narrative
17 Time and space rapidly changed as we move from Narrative the streets of New York to a garret rooftop and back to the red carpet Similarities to locations and mise en scene in Moulin Rouge.
18 Narrative Structure: Equilibrium/Disruption model Narrative Opens with the initial equilibrium of the hounded celebrity.
19 Narrative Structure: Equilibrium/Disruption model Narrative connote her flight. > Language. The montage editing monochrome colour and unusual camera angles
20 Disruption In running away from paparazzi she enters taxi where she finds young intellectual [he s reading!) who does not recognise her as so engrossed in books. Narrative They have brief affair in which she leaves the trappings of celebrity to be an ordinary girl. She escapes, says drive
21 Then told by her controlling impresario/ manager[father figure) and by her lover that her responsibility is to her public. Narrative She accepts her fate and returns to the red carpet. Disruption
22 Now in control of her fame but always has memory of that moment of escape, brief encounter, to remember. Narrative Looks back to see the Chanel sign on roof-top with young man hanging off the crescent moon shape. New Equilibrium
23 Camera zooms in to a CU of jewel hanging down her bare back, a [diamond) ring with logo No. 5 inside Language. Narrative New Equilibrium
24 Love is possible however seemingly unlikely the circumstance - fleeting moment will be remembered through her kiss; her smile; her perfume. Message also: everyone has responsibilities and that sometimes sacrifice necessary in order to meet them. Narrative The ideological message conveyed in the advert:
25 Binary oppositions which help convey these meanings and resolve the fictional narrative based on: Being out of - or in – control Conflict between personal and public life Differences between rich and poor Being a celebrity or an ordinary person Conflict between duty or emotion. Narrative
26 The dominant beliefs (ideologies) that are (re-) established: those of duty and responsibility but also that, for the working woman, career, glamour and romance possible - at least in fantasy world. Narrative
27 Kidman character moves though three representations: Representations 1.Hounded beautiful, female celebrity/star, conveyed through extravagant (stereotypically) pink flounce dress with hair disheveled as she runs, signifying how far she is out of control of her status as the most famous.
28 Kidman character moves though three representations: 1. Contd. Stereotype created by blonde hair and pink dress, again referencing Moulin Rouge, sort of Disney Cinderella look. Classic stereotype - easily recognised by audience. Still a powerful image, nonetheless, seen countless times in media texts. Creates certain ambiguity for reader. Representations
29 2. Star transformed by wearing ordinary black and white suit Language. when, as a dancer she falls for the young man in the love scene on rooftop. Representations
30 Representations 3.Finally, seen in a black fitted gown, sleek and strong hair pulled back and controlled as she moves calmly up red stair case in front of paparazzi, calmly accepting destiny. Language.
31 Representations Lighting helps to establish these changes Starting from high key lighting with paparazzi... Language.
32 Lighting Representations … we move to low key romantic lighting on roof-top.. Language.
33 Lighting Representations.. and darkly lit space when she is told by her (male) lover and by her (male) secretary to return to the real world; Language.
34 Representation Young impoverished lover, stereotypically wearing glasses connoting intelligence, unworldliness and naivety (he is unaware of her fame). Language.
35 Representation Clothes, eg white vest, suggest this. Language. Attractive, muscular, but ordinary.
36 Representation Manager/secretary in control of star persona is a male, older, shadowy figure. Stands formally dressed in background. Language.
37 Representation New York cityscape seen as a glittering, romantic. Yellow cabs and architecture immediately convey sense of place. Language. Place
38 Representation Fireworks connote emotion and celebration. Swirling cameras, fast editing and bustle connote energy of the centre of celebrity world. Language. Place
39 Allusions to mise en scene of the Paris ( City of Love ) seen in Moulin Rouge particularly with roof-top scenes. French connection of Moulin Rouge additionally referenced by romantic sounds of the (non-diegetic) music, Debussy s Claire de Lune. Language (Sound) Representation Place
40 Audience Target Audience Primarily targeting young, reasonably up-market audience. Perfume linked to Moulin Rouge which helps to lower its TA age profile Line of appeal: romance will overcome differences.
41 Audience Target Audience Brand image of exclusivity but re-positioning for young is that this does not deny romance. Company logo of two intertwined Cs identified with message throughout advert.
42 Audience TA In UK advert shown in cinemas and on Channel 4 targeting young and alternative viewers of the channel as well as cinema audiences for films like Moulin Rouge.
43 Audience TA Viewers would have experienced pleasure of recognising intertextual references to Moulin Rouge as many of scenes referenced this in their design through the mise en scene and in the cinematography. Pleasure consciously exploited by advert in knowing way.
44 Audience Genre and narrative of lost love may also have appealed to an older audience, with possible connections to texts such as the voice-over in David Lean s Brief Encounter. Element of man making decision for woman may also have linked with dominant ideologies of gender roles and appealed to male purchasers. Advert demonstrates (in simple way) how genders may respond differently to a particular narrative Differential reading/decoding
45 Audience Identification for females would be with glamour and status of celebrity both in advert and with Kidman herself. For young men it is with the lover - handsome, strong, a Latin American romantic who captures heart of star. He is narrator and we follow his desire.
46 Audience For both primary (women buying for themselves) and secondary audiences (men buying it for women) buying Chanel No. 5 would buy into this romantic dream or myth.
47 Audience For audiences, intertextual refs in terms of theme of lost love, mise en scene, cultural knowledge of celebrity, Kidman as star,
48 Audience But also knowledge of other stars such as Marilyn Monroe [icon of the paparazzi hunted and haunted star) would add to their engagement with advert. Before she became a star Marilyn Monroe had been pictured nude across a red draped background for a calendar and had famously claimed in 1954 that all she had on when she went to bed was Chanel No. 5.
49 Advert part of Chanel s ongoing high-profile campaigns linking celebrities to brand image. Institutions Appeared in television schedules and even featured on news programmes when first broadcast
50 Campaigns like this have to build upon previous messages (previous campaign based on story of Little Red Riding Hood and was two-minute film). Institutions
51 Much research will be undertaken by advertising agencies involved to make sure each new campaign reinforces, but also changes or updates, message for the target audience to keep it contemporary, Institutions and particularly if product changes or wants to reposition itself in the market place as Chanel wanted to do in this instance.
52 Campaign aimed to bring down age of the purchaser of Chanel No. 5 which was seen to have gained old-fashioned image. Previously, people who bought it characterised as middle-aged men choosing it for their mistresses at airport shops or as birthday present for their grandmothers.. Institutions
53 Institutions Chanel needed to revitalise the brand by getting young men to buy it for their partners and for young women to wear it.
54 Advert itself was in fact a media event. Institutions Accompanied by 25-minute film of the making of... and when screened in cinemas had rolling credits at end to help signify its filmic credibility.
55 Although the No. 5 logo appears a number of times the perfume bottle never appears, which again helped to position it as a film rather than advert. Why important? Is it that showing the bottle - the product would have broken fairy story spell? Made the purpose of the advert over-explicit? Institutions