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Byzantium, Islam, and China AD

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Presentation on theme: "Byzantium, Islam, and China AD"— Presentation transcript:

1 Byzantium, Islam, and China 1000-1200 AD
Nomadic Frontiers Byzantium, Islam, and China AD

2 Islamic Internal Conflicts
Shiite Fatmid Caliphate in Cairo 1021 Druze al-Hakim disappears Will spawn radical Islamic splinter group Sunni Caliphate in Baghdad Hashish Assassins Guild hired by both sides

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4 The Coming of the Steppepeople
Turks enter Middle East from Central Asia Moving because of domino effect (climate change) Seljuk Turks take Baghdad in 1055 “Army of God” Converted to Islam conquered in name of Sunni Islam India Anatolia Levant

5 Threat of the Crusaders
Western world saw Crusades as an extension of Christian power Islamic world saw as minor nuisance Crusaders began as pilgrims political unrest in Middle East led to armed guards/escorts for pilgrims adopt Muslim notion of “holy war” penance justify warrior culture

6 Call to Crusade 1090 Pope Urban II put together military expedition to take the “Holy Land” Part of his plan for Christian unity captured Jerusalem 1099 carved out Christian kingdoms in Middle East and increased wealth of church Muslim powers too caught up in internal struggles to pay much attention

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8 Turkish Stabilization of M.E.
c Zengi, a Turkish chieftain comes to power in Sunni part of Islamic Empire Saladin, a Kurdish general, is his second in command, succeeds Zengi 1197 Saladin unites Middle East under his banner conquered Fatmid caliphate end of independent Shiite state Shiites would be a minority in Sunni dominated empires until the second half of the 20th century Defeated the Crusader Kingdoms end of intermarriage and alliance between Christians and Muslims Led to anti-Jewish campaigns by Christians in Europe Blamed Jews for loss of Crusader states

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10 Saharan Islam Political unrest in Muslim Sahara led to Christians retaking Spain/N. Africa c. 1100 Muslims rulers recruited nomadic tribes to save kingdom Almoravids radical Islam Re-conquer Spain and N. Africa move south in W. Africa Ghana Gao

11 Healing Islamic Conflicts
New philosophy of Sufism surfaces pop with peasants, not upper class Mystical rather than legalist Islam al-Ghazali unified Sufism w/ mainstream Islam Sufi mystics became most tolerant of Islamic peoples

12 Byzantium Archaic, inflexible government Shrinking as Islam grows
church controlled by state Byzantine Emperor de facto head of Byzantine Orthodox Church Governmental systems dating back to Constantine Shrinking as Islam grows turn to missions and diplomats converted Russia (Vladimir of Kiev) monopolized literacy Built commonwealth of Orthodox buffer states Used ceremony and ornamentation to awe ‘barbarians’ Mechanical fire-breathing lions Fragile stability

13 Emperor Basil II 976 AD deal with conflict between large landowners and throne destroyed many landowners and gave land to peasants made peace with Arabs set realistic geographic boundaries Danube to the Euphrates est. large standing army to enforce internal control Levied large tax on aristocracy filled treasury

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15 Basil’s Heirs Basil dies without an established heir
Power given to nieces Zoe Theodora Powerful women led to a rise in esteem for family Fertility admired as much as virginity Elite rebelled against “unnatural” female leadership

16 Empress Zoe

17 Conflicts in Christianity
Eastern (Orthodox) vs. Western (Catholic) Church Latin vs. Greek common language = common culture Disagreements over DOGMA Absolute authority Pope vs. Patriarchs Possibility of unity vs. common enemies Islam Failure to unite leads to Byz. losing most of Anatolia to Turks Normans (descendents of the Vikings) Normans convert to Latin (Catholic) Christianity

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19 Byzantium and the Crusades
1097 Latin crusaders arrive to “help” Byzantium against the Turks divided by religious squabble Crusaders more interested in grabbing power than helping Byzantines Anna Comena crusaders did not return any Byzantine lands

20 Anna Comnena

21 Conflict w/ Venice Byzantine agriculture fails in 1100s
focus entirely on trade to feed populace partners w/ Venice Italian Pirates Coveted Byzantine trade In 1204 the 4th Crusade needed Venetian fleet to move them to the Holy Land Crusaders conquered Constantinople and gave Venice trade rights in exchange for passage to the Holy Land Byzantine power never recovered Lasting legacy of Byzantium mostly in preservation of Greek and Roman learning

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23 China and the New Barbarians
End of the Tang series of disasters AD Emperor dies with out heir 859 AD Uighars (10000) driven out of central Asia into Chinese lands Bandit gangs grew into armies renegade students displaced monks Armies fight over control of state political disunity Loss of Mandate of Heaven

24 Rise of the Song Dynasty
960 AD rebel general proclaimed self-emperor Dynasty lasts til 1279 AD constant conflict with “barbarians” Liao Kingdom central Mongolia led by warrior empresses Chunjin AD Xiao AD pushed S to Yellow River achieved equality with Song 1004

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26 New Barbarians cont. Xia Kingdom
between Tibet and Gobi 1044 treaty of equality with Song 1115 AD Jurchen moved out of N. Manchria Hunter people forced south during global warming conquered Liao most of N. China achieved parity with Chinese

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28 Song Expansion forced S. centered on Yangtze
expanded SW and dominated indigenous people internal expansion new rice from Vietnam draining wetlands 2 crop system double food supply deforestation

29 Song Economy money economy huge urban growth
Replaced earlier non-universal monetary and barter systems minting coins developed by putting less and less precious metal in coins paper money huge urban growth

30 Women in Song China Urban growth led to changing view of women
In pastoral settings, women had to work Seen as commodities in urban setting foot binding to keep from escaping or being able to do independent work

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