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Nomadic Frontiers Byzantium, Islam, and China 1000-1200 AD.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomadic Frontiers Byzantium, Islam, and China 1000-1200 AD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nomadic Frontiers Byzantium, Islam, and China 1000-1200 AD

2 Islamic Internal Conflicts Shiite Fatmid Caliphate in Cairo Shiite Fatmid Caliphate in Cairo 1021 Druze al-Hakim disappears 1021 Druze al-Hakim disappears Will spawn radical Islamic splinter group Will spawn radical Islamic splinter group Sunni Caliphate in Baghdad Sunni Caliphate in Baghdad Hashish Assassins Guild hired by both sides Hashish Assassins Guild hired by both sides

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4 The Coming of the Steppepeople Turks enter Middle East from Central Asia Turks enter Middle East from Central Asia Moving because of domino effect (climate change) Moving because of domino effect (climate change) Seljuk Turks take Baghdad in 1055 Seljuk Turks take Baghdad in 1055 Army of God Army of God Converted to Islam Converted to Islam conquered in name of Sunni Islam conquered in name of Sunni Islam India India Anatolia Anatolia Levant Levant

5 Threat of the Crusaders Western world saw Crusades as an extension of Christian power Western world saw Crusades as an extension of Christian power Islamic world saw as minor nuisance Islamic world saw as minor nuisance Crusaders began as pilgrims Crusaders began as pilgrims political unrest in Middle East led to armed guards/escorts for pilgrims political unrest in Middle East led to armed guards/escorts for pilgrims adopt Muslim notion of holy war adopt Muslim notion of holy war penance penance justify warrior culture justify warrior culture

6 Call to Crusade 1090 Pope Urban II put together military expedition to take the Holy Land 1090 Pope Urban II put together military expedition to take the Holy Land Part of his plan for Christian unity Part of his plan for Christian unity captured Jerusalem 1099 captured Jerusalem 1099 carved out Christian kingdoms in Middle East and increased wealth of church carved out Christian kingdoms in Middle East and increased wealth of church Muslim powers too caught up in internal struggles to pay much attention Muslim powers too caught up in internal struggles to pay much attention

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8 Turkish Stabilization of M.E. c. 1150 Zengi, a Turkish chieftain comes to power in Sunni part of Islamic Empire c. 1150 Zengi, a Turkish chieftain comes to power in Sunni part of Islamic Empire Saladin, a Kurdish general, is his second in command, succeeds Zengi Saladin, a Kurdish general, is his second in command, succeeds Zengi 1197 Saladin unites Middle East under his banner 1197 Saladin unites Middle East under his banner conquered Fatmid caliphate conquered Fatmid caliphate end of independent Shiite state end of independent Shiite state Shiites would be a minority in Sunni dominated empires until the second half of the 20 th century Shiites would be a minority in Sunni dominated empires until the second half of the 20 th century Defeated the Crusader Kingdoms Defeated the Crusader Kingdoms end of intermarriage and alliance between Christians and Muslims end of intermarriage and alliance between Christians and Muslims Led to anti-Jewish campaigns by Christians in Europe Led to anti-Jewish campaigns by Christians in Europe Blamed Jews for loss of Crusader states Blamed Jews for loss of Crusader states

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10 Saharan Islam Political unrest in Muslim Sahara led to Christians retaking Spain/N. Africa c. 1100 Political unrest in Muslim Sahara led to Christians retaking Spain/N. Africa c. 1100 Muslims rulers recruited nomadic tribes to save kingdom Muslims rulers recruited nomadic tribes to save kingdom Almoravids Almoravids radical Islam radical Islam Re-conquer Spain and N. Africa Re-conquer Spain and N. Africa move south in W. Africa move south in W. Africa Ghana Ghana Gao Gao

11 Healing Islamic Conflicts New philosophy of Sufism surfaces New philosophy of Sufism surfaces pop with peasants, not upper class pop with peasants, not upper class Mystical rather than legalist Islam Mystical rather than legalist Islam al-Ghazali unified Sufism w/ mainstream Islam al-Ghazali unified Sufism w/ mainstream Islam Sufi mystics became most tolerant of Islamic peoples Sufi mystics became most tolerant of Islamic peoples

12 Byzantium Archaic, inflexible government Archaic, inflexible government church controlled by state church controlled by state Byzantine Emperor de facto head of Byzantine Orthodox Church Byzantine Emperor de facto head of Byzantine Orthodox Church Governmental systems dating back to Constantine Governmental systems dating back to Constantine Shrinking as Islam grows Shrinking as Islam grows turn to missions and diplomats turn to missions and diplomats converted Russia (Vladimir of Kiev) converted Russia (Vladimir of Kiev) monopolized literacy monopolized literacy Built commonwealth of Orthodox buffer states Built commonwealth of Orthodox buffer states Used ceremony and ornamentation to awe barbarians Used ceremony and ornamentation to awe barbarians Mechanical fire-breathing lions Mechanical fire-breathing lions Fragile stability Fragile stability

13 Emperor Basil II 976 AD deal with conflict between large landowners and throne deal with conflict between large landowners and throne destroyed many landowners and gave land to peasants destroyed many landowners and gave land to peasants made peace with Arabs made peace with Arabs set realistic geographic boundaries set realistic geographic boundaries Danube to the Euphrates Danube to the Euphrates est. large standing army to enforce internal control est. large standing army to enforce internal control Levied large tax on aristocracy Levied large tax on aristocracy filled treasury filled treasury

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15 Basils Heirs Basil dies without an established heir Basil dies without an established heir Power given to nieces Power given to nieces Zoe Zoe Theodora Theodora Powerful women led to a rise in esteem for family Powerful women led to a rise in esteem for family Fertility admired as much as virginity Fertility admired as much as virginity Elite rebelled against unnatural female leadership Elite rebelled against unnatural female leadership

16 Empress Zoe

17 Conflicts in Christianity Eastern (Orthodox) vs. Western (Catholic) Church Eastern (Orthodox) vs. Western (Catholic) Church Latin vs. Greek Latin vs. Greek common language = common culture common language = common culture Disagreements over DOGMA Disagreements over DOGMA Absolute authority Absolute authority Pope vs. Patriarchs Pope vs. Patriarchs Possibility of unity vs. common enemies Possibility of unity vs. common enemies Islam Islam Failure to unite leads to Byz. losing most of Anatolia to Turks Failure to unite leads to Byz. losing most of Anatolia to Turks Normans (descendents of the Vikings) Normans (descendents of the Vikings) Normans convert to Latin (Catholic) Christianity Normans convert to Latin (Catholic) Christianity

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19 Byzantium and the Crusades 1097 Latin crusaders arrive to help Byzantium against the Turks 1097 Latin crusaders arrive to help Byzantium against the Turks divided by religious squabble divided by religious squabble Crusaders more interested in grabbing power than helping Byzantines Crusaders more interested in grabbing power than helping Byzantines Anna Comena Anna Comena crusaders did not return any Byzantine lands crusaders did not return any Byzantine lands

20 Anna Comnena

21 Conflict w/ Venice Byzantine agriculture fails in 1100s Byzantine agriculture fails in 1100s focus entirely on trade to feed populace focus entirely on trade to feed populace partners w/ Venice partners w/ Venice Italian Pirates Italian Pirates Coveted Byzantine trade Coveted Byzantine trade In 1204 the 4 th Crusade needed Venetian fleet to move them to the Holy Land In 1204 the 4 th Crusade needed Venetian fleet to move them to the Holy Land Crusaders conquered Constantinople and gave Venice trade rights in exchange for passage to the Holy Land Crusaders conquered Constantinople and gave Venice trade rights in exchange for passage to the Holy Land Byzantine power never recovered Byzantine power never recovered Lasting legacy of Byzantium mostly in preservation of Greek and Roman learning Lasting legacy of Byzantium mostly in preservation of Greek and Roman learning

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23 China and the New Barbarians End of the Tang End of the Tang series of disasters 800-1000 AD series of disasters 800-1000 AD Emperor dies with out heir 859 AD Emperor dies with out heir 859 AD Uighars (10000) driven out of central Asia into Chinese lands Uighars (10000) driven out of central Asia into Chinese lands Bandit gangs grew into armies Bandit gangs grew into armies renegade students renegade students displaced monks displaced monks Armies fight over control of state Armies fight over control of state political disunity political disunity Loss of Mandate of Heaven Loss of Mandate of Heaven

24 Rise of the Song Dynasty 960 AD rebel general proclaimed self- emperor 960 AD rebel general proclaimed self- emperor Dynasty lasts til 1279 AD Dynasty lasts til 1279 AD constant conflict with barbarians constant conflict with barbarians Liao Kingdom Liao Kingdom central Mongolia central Mongolia led by warrior empresses led by warrior empresses Chunjin 926-947 AD Chunjin 926-947 AD Xiao 982-1009 AD Xiao 982-1009 AD pushed S to Yellow River pushed S to Yellow River achieved equality with Song 1004 achieved equality with Song 1004

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26 New Barbarians cont. Xia Kingdom Xia Kingdom between Tibet and Gobi between Tibet and Gobi 1044 treaty of equality with Song 1044 treaty of equality with Song 1115 AD Jurchen moved out of N. Manchria 1115 AD Jurchen moved out of N. Manchria Hunter people forced south during global warming Hunter people forced south during global warming conquered Liao conquered Liao most of N. China most of N. China achieved parity with Chinese achieved parity with Chinese

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28 Song Expansion forced S. centered on Yangtze forced S. centered on Yangtze expanded SW and dominated indigenous people expanded SW and dominated indigenous people internal expansion internal expansion new rice from Vietnam new rice from Vietnam draining wetlands draining wetlands 2 crop system 2 crop system double food supply double food supply deforestation deforestation

29 Song Economy money economy money economy Replaced earlier non-universal monetary and barter systems Replaced earlier non-universal monetary and barter systems minting coins minting coins developed by putting less and less precious metal in coins developed by putting less and less precious metal in coins paper money paper money huge urban growth huge urban growth

30 Women in Song China Urban growth led to changing view of women Urban growth led to changing view of women In pastoral settings, women had to work In pastoral settings, women had to work Seen as commodities in urban setting Seen as commodities in urban setting foot binding to keep from escaping or being able to do independent work foot binding to keep from escaping or being able to do independent work

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