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1 Questions of Leadership Elizabeth Kelley, PhD. March 3, 2007.

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1 1 Questions of Leadership Elizabeth Kelley, PhD. March 3, 2007

2 2 Questions of Leadership #Question 1What is leadership? 2Is leadership important? 3How do management and leadership differ? 4Are leaders born or made? 5What do leaders do? 6How do you lead effectively in emerging environments? 7A & BWhy transformational leadership? What IS transformational leadership? 8What kind of leadership will organizations need in the future?

3 3 Effective Leaders

4 4 Elizabeth 1

5 5 Gandhi

6 6 Winston Churchill

7 7 Oprah

8 8 Louise Arbour

9 9 Ordinary Guy

10 10 Norman Horrocks, OC

11 11 Question #1 What IS Leadership?

12 12 Various Definitions Leadership is the process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates, and directs their activities to help achieve group or organizational goals. (McShane, 2000) To take people to places they would not have gone, and have them do things they would not have done…. Because it is their own idea! (Kelloway, 2004) Leadership is an intangible quality with no definition. That’s probably a good thing, because if the people being led knew the definition, they would hunt down the leaders and kill them. (Scott Adams, 2000)

13 13 Question #2 Is Leadership Important?

14 14 It Depends on Who You Ask Implicit Leadership Perspective Leadership Substitutes YES!!! complex, changing environment lateral leadership requirement employee retention

15 15 Question #3 How Do Management and Leadership Differ?

16 16 Various perspectives Management is doing something right; leadership is doing the right thing Management deals with systems and structures; leadership deals with people and ideas Managers control complexity; leaders initiate change

17 17 Question #4 Are Leaders Born or Made? GREAT MAN STUDIES

18 18 Leadership Competencies 1. Drive 2. Leadership motivation 3. Integrity 4. Self-confidence 5. Intelligence 6. Knowledge of the business 7. Emotional intelligence 8. Tolerance to Stress 9. HEIGHT

19 19 Leadership Competencies Indicate potential, not performance Perceptions Chicken or egg? Universality bias

20 20 Question #5 What Do Leaders Do?

21 21 Behavioural Studies Two independent behavioural dimensions: people-oriented and task- oriented Results in four styles of leadership People-oriented – satisfied employees Task-oriented – inconclusive Universality bias

22 22 Context Bias in Theory How does context influence management thought? Cold War climate – Leadership theory connection

23 23 Contingency Approach IT DEPENDS!!! Focus on relationship between leader and follower Different styles for different situations Transactional – focus on results, getting job done

24 24 Emerging Organizational Environments Issues: Information – access, control, usage, privacy, security, technology Distance – remote workers, customers, suppliers Diversity – generational, cultural, gender, ability Corporate social and environmental responsibility Integrity CHANGE

25 25 Question #6 How to Lead Effectively in These Environments?

26 26 Transformational Leadership Aim is to elevate followers to higher levels of performance (Burns and Bass) Also called “full range leadership” and/or “authentic leadership” Focuses on leader-follower relationship Incremental to transactional leadership

27 27 Question #7A Why Transformational Leadership? It works unequivocal support in a variety of environments (Judge & Piccolo) increased employee job satisfaction, organizational commitment, retention, information sharing, innovation, individual and unit bottom line performance It can be taught improved organizational and individual performance after training (Barling, Weber & Kelloway)

28 28 Question #7B What specifically IS it? Idealized influence – Leader engenders faith, trust and respect by consistently doing the right thing Inspirational motivation – Leader sets high standards, presents a vision, convinces individuals they can perform beyond expectations; consistent actions cultivate trust Intellectual stimulation – Leader encourages followers to think for themselves, develops future leaders Individualized consideration – Leader treats each employee as an individual, focuses on employee development, demonstrates compassion

29 29 Ways to Enact TFL Idealized influence – make decisions transparent; give the decision and its rationale Inspirational motivation – talk positively, express confidence in others; use the self-fulfilling prophecy – “I know you can do it” Intellectual stimulation – ask “What if?”, “What do you think we should do?”; STOP answering questions Individualized consideration – make time for others as individuals, MBWA, assign tasks on the basis of individual abilities and developmental needs RRSP MODEL

30 30 Transformational Stories Ordinary Guy Stacey, the teacher Jack Welch…not?

31 31 Question #8 What kind of leadership will organizations need in the future?

32 32 Future Leadership Style Helping others succeed Flexible Collaborative Inclusive Participative Relationship-oriented Encourage knowledge sharing and creation Encourage innovation TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

33 33 Leadership in Other Emerging Contexts Remote leadership Knowledge-based organizations Multi-generation workforces Cross cultural workforces Social/environmentally conscious organizations

34 34 Nothing New Under the Sun? To lead people, walk beside them. As for the BEST leaders, the people do not notice their existence. The Next Best, the people honor and praise. The NEXT, the people fear; and the NEXT, they hate. When the BEST leader's work is done the people say, "We did it ourselves". Lao Tzu

35 35 Questions of Leadership…and some suggested answers #QuestionAnswer 1What is leadership?Influence, inspire, your choice 2Is leadership important?Yes, very (but not everyone agrees) 3How do management and leadership differ? They are two ends of a continuum of full range leadership; both required 4Are leaders born or made?Yes; you can learn to be transformational; some do it naturally 5What do leaders do?It depends on who/when you ask – people and task; 6How do you lead effectively in emerging environments? Transformational Leadership 7AWhy transformational leadership?It works and it can be taught 7BWhat IS transformational leadership?A leadership style that aims to elevate performance beyond expectations: ask questions, empower, role model, articulate a vision and are CONSISTENT 8What kind of leadership will organizations need in the future? Transformational leadership

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