2Cost Concepts for Decision Making A relevant cost is a cost that differs between alternatives.12
3Identifying Relevant Costs Costs that can be eliminated (in whole or in part) by choosing one alternative over another are avoidable costs. Avoidable costs are relevant costs.Unavoidable costs are never relevant and include:Sunk costs.Future costs that do not differ between the alternatives.
4Identifying Relevant Costs Sunk cost -- a cost that has already been incurred and that cannot be avoided regardless of what a manager decides to do.
5Identifying Relevant Costs Well, I’ve assembledall the costs associatedwith the alternativeswe are considering.
6Identifying Relevant Costs Great! The first thing we need todo is eliminate all the sunk costs.
7Identifying Relevant Costs Now that we have eliminated thesunk costs, we need to eliminate the future costs that don’t differ between alternatives.
8Identifying Relevant Costs The decision will beeasier now. All wehave left are theavoidable costs.
9Sunk Costs are not Relevant Costs Let’s look atthe WhiteCompanyexample.
10Sunk Costs are not Relevant Costs A manager at White Co. wants to replace an old machine with a new, more efficient machine.
11Sunk Costs are not Relevant Costs White’s sales are $200,000 per year.Fixed expenses, other than depreciation, are $70,000 per year.Should the manager purchase the new machine?
12Incorrect AnalysisThe manager recommends that the company not purchase the new machine since disposal of the old machine would result in a loss:
13Look at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years. Correct AnalysisLook at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years.$200,000 per year × 5 years$100,000 per year × 5 years
14Look at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years. Correct AnalysisLook at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years.$70,000 per year × 5 years
15value of the old machine. Correct AnalysisLook at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years.The remaining bookvalue of the old machine.
16Look at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years. Correct AnalysisLook at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years.$80,000 per year × 5 years
17The total cost will be depreciated over the five year period. Correct AnalysisLook at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years.The total cost will be depreciated over the five year period.
18Correct AnalysisLook at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years.The remaining book value of the oldmachine is a sunk cost and is notrelevant to the decision.
19Look at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years. Correct AnalysisLook at the comparative cost and revenue for the next five years.Would you recommend purchasing the new machine even though we will show a $45,000 loss on the old machine?
20Correct Analysis Let’s look at a more efficient way to analyze this decision.
23Retain or Replace Equipment Example Assessment of replacement of a factory machine:Variable costs:Decrease from $160,000to $125,000 annuallyOld Machine New MachineBook value $40,000Cost $120,000Remaining useful life four years four yearsScrap value
24Retain or Replace Equipment Example (Continued) Net Income Retain Replace Increase (Decrease)Variable manufacturing costs $640,000a $500,000b $140,000New machine cost , (120,000)Total $640, $620,000 $ 20,000a(4 years x $160,000) b(4 years x $125,000)Decision: replace equipment.Lower variable manufacturing costs more than offset cost of new equipment.The book value of the old machine does not affect the decision.
25Adding/Dropping Segments One of the most important decisions managers make is whether to add or drop a business segment such as a product or a store.Let’s see how relevant costs should be used in this decision.
26Adding/Dropping Segments Due to the declining popularity of digital watches, Lovell Company’s digital watch line has not reported a profit for several years. An income statement for last year is shown on the next screen.
28Adding/Dropping Segments If the digital watch line is dropped, thefixed general factory overhead and generaladministrative expenses will be allocatedto other product lines because theyare not avoidable.
29Adding/Dropping Segments The equipment used to manufacturedigital watches has no resalevalue or alternative use.Should Lovell retain or dropthe digital watch segment?
30A Contribution Margin Approach DECISION RULELovell should drop the digital watch segment only if its fixed cost savings exceed lost contribution margin.Let’s look at this solution.
31A Contribution Margin Approach Remember, depreciation on equipment with no resale value is not relevant to the decision since it is a sunk cost and is not avoidable.
32Example:The Cook Company has two divisions--Eastern and Western. The divisions have the following revenues and expenses:Eastern WesternSales $550, $500,000Variable costs , ,000Direct fixed costs , ,000Allocated corporate costs , ,000Net income (loss) (75,000) ,000The management of Cook is considering the elimination of the Eastern Division. If the Eastern Division were eliminated, the direct fixed costs associated with this division could be avoided. However, corporate costs would still be $305,000 in total. Given these data, the elimination of the Eastern Division would result in an overall company net income (loss) of:
33Example:The Cook Company has two divisions--Eastern and Western. The divisions have the following revenues and expenses:Eastern WesternSales $ $500,000Variable costs ,000Direct fixed costs ,000Allocated corporate costs , ,000Net income (loss) (170,000) ,000(155,000)
34Beware of Allocated Fixed Costs Why should we keep the digital watch segment when it’s showing a loss?
35Beware of Allocated Fixed Costs Part of the answer lies in the way we allocate common fixed costs to our products.
36Beware of Allocated Fixed Costs Our allocations can make a segment look less profitable than it really is.
37The Make or Buy Decision A decision concerning whether an item should be produced internally or purchased from an outside supplier is called a “make or buy” decision.Let’s look at the Essex Company example.
38The Make or Buy Decision Essex manufactures part 4A that is currently used in one of its products.The unit cost to make this part is:
39The Make or Buy Decision The special equipment used to manufacture part 4A has no resale value.General factory overhead is allocated on the basis of direct labor hours.The $30 total unit cost is based on 20,000 parts produced each year.An outside supplier has offered to provide the 20,000 parts at a cost of $25 per part.Should we accept the supplier’s offer?
40The Make or Buy Decision 20,000 × $9 per unit = $180,000
41The Make or Buy Decision The special equipment has no resale value and is a sunk cost.
42The Make or Buy Decision Not avoidable and is irrelevant. If the product is dropped, it will be reallocated to other products.
43The Make or Buy Decision Should we make or buy part 4A?
44The Make or Buy Decision DECISION RULEIn deciding whether to accept the outside supplier’s offer, Essex isolated the relevant costs of making the part by eliminating:The sunk costs.The future costs that will not differ between making or buying the parts.
45The Matter of Opportunity Cost The economic benefits that are foregone as a result of pursuing some course of action. Opportunity costs are not actual dollar outlays and are not recorded in the accounts of an organization.
46Special Orders Should Jet accept the offer? Jet, Inc. receives a one-time order that is not considered part of its normal ongoing business.Jet, Inc. makes a single product with a unit variable cost of $8. Normal selling price is $20 per unit.A foreign distributor offers to purchase 3,000 units for $10 per unit.Annual capacity is 10,000 units, and annual fixed costs total $48,000, but Jet, Inc. is currently producing and selling only 5,000 units.Should Jet accept the offer?
48If Jet accepts the offer, net income will increase by $6,000. Special OrdersIf Jet accepts the offer, net income will increase by $6,000.We can reach the same results more quickly like this:Special order contribution margin = $10 – $8 = $2Change in income = $2 × 3,000 units = $6,000.
49Example:Relay Corporation manufactures batons. Relay can manufacture 300,000 batons a year at a variable cost of $750,000 and a fixed cost of $450,000. Based on Relay's predictions for next year, 240,000 batons will be sold at the regular price of $5.00 each. In addition, a special order was placed for 60,000 batons to be sold at a 40% discount off the regular price. Total fixed costs would be unaffected by this order. By what amount would the company's net operating income be increased or decreased as a result of the special order?$60,000 decrease.$30,000 increase.$36,000 increase.$180,000 increase.
50Joint Product CostsIn some industries, a number of end products are produced from a single raw material input.Two or more products produced from a common input are called joint products.The point in the manufacturing process where each joint product can be recognized as a separate product is called the split-off point.
51Joint Products Joint Costs Split-Off Point Oil Common Production ProcessJointInputGasolineChemicalsSplit-OffPoint
52Joint Products Joint Costs Separate Split-Off Product Point Costs ProcessingFinalSaleOilCommonProductionProcessJointInputFinalSaleGasolineSeparateProcessingFinalSaleChemicalsSeparateProductCostsSplit-OffPoint
53The Pitfalls of Allocation Joint costs are really common costs incurred to simultaneously produce a variety of end products.Joint costs are often allocated to end products on the basis of the relative sales value of each product or on some other basis.
54Sell or Process Further It is always profitable to continue processing a joint product after the split-off point IF: the incremental revenue exceeds the incremental processing costs incurred after the split-off point.Let’s look at an example - Sawmill, Inc.
55Sell or Process Further Sawmill, Inc. cuts logs from which unfinished lumber and sawdust are the immediate joint products.Unfinished lumber is sold “as is” or processed further into finished lumber.Sawdust can also be sold “as is” to gardening wholesalers or processed further into “presto-logs.”
56Sell or Process Further Data about Sawmill’s joint products includes:
59Sell or Process Further Should we process the lumberfurther and sell the sawdust “as is?”
60Example:WP Company produces products X, Y, and Z from a single raw material input in a joint production process. Budgeted data for the next month is as follows:X Y Z oUnits produced , , ,000Per unit sales value at split-off $19 $ $24Added processing costs per unit $ 7 $ $ 7Per unit sales value if processed further .. $29 $ $30The cost of the joint raw material input is $149,000. Which of the products should be processed beyond the split-off point?X Y Z oyes yes nono yes noyes no yesno yes yes