Proskynesis: Greek name of the ritual greeting at the eastern courts. Callisthenes was executed for criticizing Alexander’s adoption of proskynesis. Alexander assuming Persian manners
Roxane, the daughter of a Sogdian/Bactrian nobleman, married Alexander the Great in 327 B.C. She was only 16 years old. The Sogdians were an ancient Iranian people whose homeland was in the area around Samarkand and who had established settlements throughout Chinese Turkistan before the advent of Islam.
Alexander had established a number of cities and military colonies named Alexander to guard strategic points and supervised wide areas. Most of the settlers were Greek mercenaries. It has been estimated that, in the course of his campaign, Alexander summoned some 60,000 to 65,000 additional mercenaries from Greece, at least 36,000 of whom took up residence in the garrisons and new cities.
Eudoxus demonstrated that the planets obeyed regular laws and moved in circular fashion within a number of spheres. Eudoxus See Nagle, p. 227.
Heracleides Noted that Venus is never more than 47° from the Sun, and Mercury is never more than 28° from the Sun. He “speculated that the earth, a sphere, revolved on its own axis daily and that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun (also a planet), although all three, along with the remaining planets, revolved around the earth.” See p. 227
Astrology: the belief that the movement of the heavenly bodies influence human lives. See p. 227
Diogenes of Sinope (ca. 400-325 B.C.), the founder of Cynicism.
Epicurus of Samos (370-340 B.C.) “There is nothing to fear in God nor anything to feel in death. Evil can be endured, good achieved.” Nagle, p. 229. “Thank blessed nature that she had made essential things easy to to come by and things attained with difficulty unnecessary.” (p. 230) “If you wish to make [a man] rich do not add to his money but subtract from his desires.” (p. 230)
Zeno of Cittium (366-280 B.C.) The founder of Stoicism
The remains of some baths and the gymnasium at Pergamum.
Queen Arsinoë II Arsinoë II, sister and wife of King Ptolemy II, played an active role in Egyptian political affairs. This statue from 2770-240 B.C. shows the Queen in the traditional style of a pharaoh. She became so important that she was featured on Ptolemaic coins
The Destruction of the Persian Palace at Persepolis: In what ways do the accounts by Arrian and Diodorus differ? How would each interpretation affect the way historians interpret the policies of Alexander the Great? A New Autonomy for Women: Judging by the content of these letters, what freedoms did Hellenistic women enjoy? How autonomous were they? Based upon your knowledge of gender and gender roles in shaping earlier cultures, how did Hellenistic civilization differ in its conceptions of what was “proper” for men and women?