Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter 3.1 The Atom:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter 3.1 The Atom: The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to TheoryChapter 3Atoms:The BuildingBlocks of Matter3.1 The Atom:From Philosophical Idea to Theory
2 Democritus (400 BC) Coined the term “atomos” "The only existing things are atoms and empty space; all else is opinion”Coined the term “atomos”
3 Law of Conservation of Mass Mass is neither created nor destroyed during chemical or physical reactions.Total mass of reactants=Total mass of productsAntoine Lavoisier
4 Law of Definite Proportions A chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the sample
5 Law of Multiple Proportions If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbersa. CO2 and COb. H2O and H2O2
6 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atomsAtoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other propertiesJohn Dalton
7 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyedAtoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compoundsIn chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearrangedJohn Dalton
8 Modern Atomic TheorySeveral changes have been made to Dalton’s theory.Dalton said:Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other propertiesModern theory states:Atoms of an element have a characteristic average mass which is unique to that element.
9 Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter 3.2 The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to TheoryChapter 3Atoms:The BuildingBlocks of Matter3.2The Structure of the Atom
10 Isotopes Elements occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
11 Composition of the nucleus Atomic MassesAtomic mass is the average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.Carbon =IsotopeSymbolComposition of the nucleus% in natureCarbon-1212C6 protons6 neutrons98.89%Carbon-1313C7 neutrons1.11%Carbon-1414C8 neutrons<0.01%1 amu (atomic mass unit) = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom; also = x kg
12 Modern Atomic Theory #2 Dalton said: Modern theory states: Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyedModern theory states:Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions. However, these changes CAN occur in nuclear reactions!
13 Discovery of the Electron In 1897, J.J. Thomson used a cathode ray tube to deduce the presence of a negatively charged particle.Cathode ray tubes pass electricity through a gas that is contained at a very low pressure.
15 Thomson’s Atomic Model Thomson believed that the electrons were like plums embedded in a positively charged “pudding,” thus it was called the “plum pudding” model.
16 Mass of the Electron1909 – Robert Millikan determines the mass of the electron.Mass of the electron is9.109 x kgThe oil drop apparatus
17 Conclusions from the Study of the Electron Cathode rays have identical properties regardless of the element used to produce them. All elements must contain identically charged electrons.Atoms are neutral, so there must be positive particles in the atom to balance the negative charge of the electronsElectrons have so little mass that atoms must contain other particles that account for most of the mass
18 Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment Alpha particles are helium nucleiParticles were fired at a thin sheet of gold foilParticle hits on the detecting screen (film) are recorded
19 Try it Yourself!In the following pictures, there is a target hidden by a cloud. To figure out the shape of the target, we shot some beams into the cloud and recorded where the beams came out. Can you figure out the shape of the target?
21 Rutherford’s Findings Most of the particles passed right throughA few particles were deflectedVERY FEW were greatly deflected“Like howitzer shells bouncing off of tissue paper!”Cool Website!Conclusions:The nucleus is smallThe nucleus is denseThe nucleus is positively charged
22 Atomic Particles Particle Charge Mass (kg) Location Electron -1 9.109 x 10-31Electron cloudProton+11.673 x 10-27NucleusNeutron1.675 x 10-27
23 The Atomic ScaleMost of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus (protons and neutrons)Electrons are found outside of the nucleus (the electron cloud)Most of the volume of the atom is empty space“q” is a particle called a “quark”
24 Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter 3.3 Counting Atoms The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to TheoryChapter 3Atoms:The BuildingBlocks of Matter3.3Counting Atoms
25 Atomic NumberAtomic number (Z) of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element.Element# of protonsAtomic # (Z)Carbon6Phosphorus15Gold79
26 Isotopes…Again (must be on the test) Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different masses due to varying numbers of neutrons.IsotopeProtonsElectronsNeutronsNucleusHydrogen–1(protium)1Hydrogen-2(deuterium)Hydrogen-3(tritium)2
27 Mass NumberMass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope.Mass # = p+ + n0Nuclidep+n0e-Mass #Oxygen -10-3342- 3115188818Arsenic753375Phosphorus161531
28 6 protons, 6 electrons & 7 neutrons Practice1. How many protons, neutrons & electrons make up an atom of carbon-13?2. Write the nuclear symbol for oxygen-16.3. Write the hyphen notation for the element whose atoms have 7 electrons & 9 neutrons.6 protons, 6 electrons & 7 neutronsNitrogen-16
29 The MoleIn chemistry, we use a new unit to quantify an amount of a substance.This unit is called the mole; abbreviated mol.(no, not an animal or a dermatological spot)The same way the supermarket uses a dozen to quantify 12 objects, we use a mole to quantify6.02 x 1023 objects.This unit helps chemists determine the number of particles in a sample of matter without counting them.
30 The Mole 1 dozen = 12 1 gross = 144 1 ream = 500 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 There are exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 in one mole of carbon-12.
31 I didn’t discover it. Its just named after me! Avogadro’s Number6.02 x 1023 is called “Avogadro’s Number” in honor of the Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro ( ).I didn’t discover it. Its just named after me!Amadeo Avogadro
32 Calculations with Moles: Converting moles to grams How many grams of lithium are in 3.50 moles of lithium?3.50 mol Li6.94 g LiX= g Li24.31 mol Li
33 Calculations with Moles: Converting grams to moles How many moles of lithium are in 18.2 grams of lithium?1 mol Li18.2 g LiX= mol Li2.626.94 g Li
34 Calculations with Moles: Using Avogadro’s Number How many atoms of lithium are in 3.50 moles of lithium?3.50 mol Li6.022 x 1023 atoms LiX= atoms Li2.11 x 10241 mol Li
35 Calculations with Moles: Using Avogadro’s Number How many atoms of lithium are in 18.2 g of lithium?6.022 x 1023 atoms Li1 mol Li18.2 g LiXX6.94 g Li1 mol Li(18.2)(6.022 x 1023)/6.94= atoms Li1.58 x 1024
36 More Practice What is the mass is grams of 3.6 mol of carbon? What is the mass in grams of mol of sulfur?How many moles of copper are in 3.22 g copper?How many moles of lithium are in 2.72 x 10-4 g lithium?How many moles of carbon are in 2.25 x 1022 atoms of carbon?43 g23.5 gmol3.92 x 10-5 molmol
37 Even More Practice!6. How many moles of oxygen, O, are in 2,000,000 atoms oxygen? 7. How many atoms of sodium are in 3.80 mol sodium? 8. What is the mass in grams of 5.0 x 109 atoms of neon? 9. How many atoms of carbon are in g carbon? 10. What mass of silver contains the same number of atoms as 10.0 g of boron?3 x mol2.29 x 1024 atoms1.7 x g1.0 x 1021 atoms99.8 g