Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Theory 3.1 The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Theory."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Theory 3.1 The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Theory
Democritus (400 BC) "The only existing things are atoms and empty space; all else is opinion” Coined the term “atomos”
Law of Conservation of Mass Total mass of reactants = Total mass of products Antoine Lavoisier Mass is neither created nor destroyed during chemical or physical reactions.
Law of Definite Proportions A chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the sample
Law of Multiple Proportions If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers a. CO 2 and CO b. H 2 O and H 2 O 2
Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties John Dalton
Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged John Dalton
Modern Atomic Theory Several changes have been made to Dalton’s theory. Dalton said: Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties Modern theory states: Atoms of an element have a characteristic average mass which is unique to that element.
Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Theory 3.2 The Structure of the Atom
Isotopes Elements occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
Atomic Masses IsotopeSymbolComposition of the nucleus % in nature Carbon-12 12 C6 protons 6 neutrons 98.89% Carbon-13 13 C6 protons 7 neutrons 1.11% Carbon-14 14 C6 protons 8 neutrons <0.01% Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. Carbon = 12.011 1 amu (atomic mass unit) = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom; also = 1.660540 x 10 -27 kg
Modern Atomic Theory #2 Dalton said: Modern theory states: Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions. However, these changes CAN occur in nuclear reactions!
Discovery of the Electron In 1897, J.J. Thomson used a cathode ray tube to deduce the presence of a negatively charged particle. Cathode ray tubes pass electricity through a gas that is contained at a very low pressure.
Some Modern Cathode Ray Tubes
Thomson’s Atomic Model Thomson believed that the electrons were like plums embedded in a positively charged “pudding,” thus it was called the “plum pudding” model.
Mass of the Electron 1909 – Robert Millikan determines the mass of the electron. The oil drop apparatus Mass of the electron is 9.109 x 10 -31 kg
Conclusions from the Study of the Electron Cathode rays have identical properties regardless of the element used to produce them. All elements must contain identically charged electrons. Atoms are neutral, so there must be positive particles in the atom to balance the negative charge of the electrons Electrons have so little mass that atoms must contain other particles that account for most of the mass
Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment Alpha particles are helium nuclei Particles were fired at a thin sheet of gold foil Particle hits on the detecting screen (film) are recorded
Try it Yourself! In the following pictures, there is a target hidden by a cloud. To figure out the shape of the target, we shot some beams into the cloud and recorded where the beams came out. Can you figure out the shape of the target?
The Answers Target #1 Target #2
Rutherford’s Findings The nucleus is small The nucleus is dense The nucleus is positively charged Most of the particles passed right through A few particles were deflected VERY FEW were greatly deflected “Like howitzer shells bouncing off of tissue paper!” Conclusions: Cool Website!
Atomic Particles ParticleChargeMass (kg)Location Electron9.109 x 10 -31 Electron cloud Proton+11.673 x 10 -27 Nucleus Neutron01.675 x 10 -27 Nucleus
The Atomic Scale Most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus (protons and neutrons) Electrons are found outside of the nucleus (the electron cloud) Most of the volume of the atom is empty space “q” is a particle called a “quark”
Chapter 3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Theory 3.3 Counting Atoms
Atomic Number Atomic number (Z) of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element. Element# of protonsAtomic # (Z) Carbon66 Phosphorus15 Gold79
Isotopes…Again (must be on the test) Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different masses due to varying numbers of neutrons. IsotopeProton s ElectronsNeutronsNucleus Hydrogen–1 (protium) 110 Hydrogen-2 (deuterium) 111 Hydrogen-3 (tritium) 112
Mass Number Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope. Mass # = p + + n 0 Nuclide p+p+ n0n0 e-e- Mass # Oxygen -10 -3342 - 3115 8818 Arsenic753375 Phosphorus153116
Practice 1. How many protons, neutrons & electrons make up an atom of carbon-13? 2. Write the nuclear symbol for oxygen-16. 3. Write the hyphen notation for the element whose atoms have 7 electrons & 9 neutrons. 6 protons, 6 electrons & 7 neutrons Nitrogen-16
The Mole In chemistry, we use a new unit to quantify an amount of a substance.In chemistry, we use a new unit to quantify an amount of a substance. This unit is called the mole; abbreviated mol.This unit is called the mole; abbreviated mol. (no, not an animal or a dermatological spot) The same way the supermarket uses a dozen to quantify 12 objects, we use a mole to quantifyThe same way the supermarket uses a dozen to quantify 12 objects, we use a mole to quantify 6.02 x 10 23 objects. This unit helps chemists determine the number of particles in a sample of matter without counting them.This unit helps chemists determine the number of particles in a sample of matter without counting them.
The Mole 1 dozen = 1 gross = 1 ream = 1 mole = 12 144 500 6.02 x 10 23 There are exactly 12 grams of carbon- 12 in one mole of carbon-12.
Avogadro’s Number 6.02 x 10 23 is called “Avogadro’s Number” in honor of the Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1855). Amadeo Avogadro I didn’t discover it. Its just named after me!
Calculations with Moles: Converting moles to grams How many grams of lithium are in 3.50 moles of lithium? 3.50 mol Li = g Li 1 mol Li 6.94 g Li 24.3 X
Calculations with Moles: Converting grams to moles How many moles of lithium are in 18.2 grams of lithium? 18.2 g Li = mol Li 6.94 g Li 1 mol Li 2.62 X
Calculations with Moles: Using Avogadro’s Number How many atoms of lithium are in 3.50 moles of lithium? 3.50 mol Li = atoms Li 1 mol Li 6.022 x 10 23 atoms Li 2.11 x 10 24 X
Calculations with Moles: Using Avogadro’s Number How many atoms of lithium are in 18.2 g of lithium? 18.2 g Li = atoms Li 1 mol Li 6.022 x 10 23 atoms Li 1.58 x 10 24 6.94 g Li 1 mol Li (18.2)(6.022 x 10 23 )/6.94 XX
More Practice 1.What is the mass is grams of 3.6 mol of carbon? 2.What is the mass in grams of 1.733 mol of sulfur? 3.How many moles of copper are in 3.22 g copper? 4.How many moles of lithium are in 2.72 x 10 -4 g lithium? 5.How many moles of carbon are in 2.25 x 10 22 atoms of carbon? 43 g 23.5 g 0.0507 mol 3.92 x 10 -5 mol 0.0374 mol
Even More Practice! 6. How many moles of oxygen, O, are in 2,000,000 atoms oxygen? 7. How many atoms of sodium are in 3.80 mol sodium? 8. What is the mass in grams of 5.0 x 10 9 atoms of neon? 9. How many atoms of carbon are in 0.020 g carbon? 10. What mass of silver contains the same number of atoms as 10.0 g of boron? 1.0 x 10 21 atoms 1.7 x 10 -13 g 99.8 g 3 x 10 -18 mol 2.29 x 10 24 atoms