Presentation on theme: "SUCCESSION AND STABILITY"— Presentation transcript:
1SUCCESSION AND STABILITY Chapter 20Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
2Chapter Concepts What is succession? What are the causes of succession?How do community composition / diversity, and ecosystem energy flow / nutrient cycling change during succession?How do ecologists know this stuff?What are the implications in a human – dominated world?Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
3What does it take to keep this lawn looking like this? What will happen to this lawn over time with no human intervention?Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
4Primary SuccessionEstablishment of a biological community on new substrates where no community had previously existed.ExamplesOn land exposed by retreating glaciersOn new substrates created by volcanic lava flowsMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
5Primary Succession – Glacier Bay, Alaska Reiners et.al. (1971)Changes in plant diversity during successionMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
12Coral Reef Succession On Lava Flows Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
13Coral Reef Succession On Lava Flows Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
14Coral Reef Succession On Lava Flows Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
15Coral Reef Succession On Lava Flows Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
16Coral Reef Succession On Lava Flows Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
17Coral Reef Succession On Lava Flows Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
18Secondary SuccessionRe-building of a biological community after a previously existing community is destroyed by a disturbance, but the soil remains.Examples:Recovery of forests after fire, wind storm, insect pest outbreak, loggingRe-growth of natural vegetation after farmland abandonmentMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
20Old Field Succession 1 Year After Abandonment Grasses and Weeds DominateMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
21Old Field Succession 5 Years After Abandonment Goldenrod and Other Perennial Weeds DominateMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
22Old Field Succession 10 Years After Abandonment Tree saplings and shrubsbegin to establishMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
23Old Field Succession 20 Years After Abandonment Trees and shrubs begin to replaceherbaceous plantspeciesMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
24Old Field Succession 28 Years After Abandonment Where Did the Grasses and Goldenrod Go ?Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
25Late successional community DefinitionsClimax Community –Late successional communityRemains stable until disrupted by disturbanceMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
26Primary vs. Secondary Succession Primary succession slower than secondary succession.With no pre-existing seeds or root systems in the soil, establishment of organisms requires migration into the area from other locations.Establishment of many plant species is delayed until soil development has occurred (sand, silt, clay, organic matter)
27Causes of SuccessionSpecies differ in dispersal (migration) ability.Species differ in their environmental tolerances / requirements.Species differ in growth rate.Species differ in life span.Species differ in competitive ability.
28Pioneer (r-selected) Species Produce large numbers of small, easily dispersed young.Are usually first species to arrive after disturbance.Grow fast in high resource environment.Tolerate harsh physical environments.Reach sexual maturity fast.Short life spans (require replacement via reproduction to remain on the site)Poor competitive ability.
29Late-Succession (K-selected) Species Produce fewer, larger young that often have limited dispersal from parent.Usually arrive at disturbed site later (may require pioneers moderate environment first).Have slower growth rate.Longer time to sexual maturity.Long-lived (hold onto space / resources)Good competitive ability (able to displace pioneer species)
30Community and Ecosystem Changes During Succession Species Diversity increases (but may decrease during late stages due to competitive exclusion).Net Primary Production increases during early stages, but declines during late stages due to increased respiration.Nutrient Cycling / Retention greatest during middle stages.
31Species Richness During Primary Succession at Glacier Bay Study Plots Fig 20.2
32Change of Plant Growth Forms During Succession Fig 20.3
33Woody Plant Species Richness During Secondary Forest Succession (Eastern USA) Piedmont Plateau Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
34Woody Plant Species Richness During Secondary Forest Succession (Eastern USA) Fig 20.4
35Breeding Bird Species Richness During Secondary Forest Succession (Eastern USA) Fig 20.5
36Species Richness of Macroinvertebrate and Macroalgae Species During Secondary Succession on Intertidal BouldersFig 20.7
37Algal species Diversity During Secondary Succession in Sycamore Creek After Flooding Fig 20.8
39How Do We Study Succession ? (Long-Term Research) 1. Establish permanently marked plots in an area recently affected by disturbance.2. Record community / ecosystem variablesSpecies relative abundance / Species diversityBiomass / Net Primary ProductionNutrient Pools and Input / Output Fluxes
40How Do We Study Succession ? (Long-Term Research) 3. Re-measure variables in exactly the same plots at different times (often intervals of decades).4. Change in community / ecosystem variables over time attributed to succession.Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
41How Do We Study Succession ? (Space-for-Time Comparative Studies) 1. Record community / ecosystem variables in plots established in different areas that were disturbed at different times in the past.Species relative abundance / Species diversityBiomass / Net Primary ProductionNutrient Pools and Input / Output Fluxes
42How Do We Study Succession ? (Space-for-Time Comparative Studies) 2. Compare community / ecosystem variables between these different areas. Differences are attributed to succession.3. Valid only if the following conditions are true:Different areas were all disturbed in exactly the same wayDifferent areas have similar environmental conditionsMolles: Ecology 2nd Ed.
43How Do Disturbance Characteristics Influence Succession? Short Return Time (High Frequency)Limits opportunity for immigration of species and re-growth of populations.K-selected species eliminated.Limits opportunity for re-building biomass.Nutrient losses due to disturbance not fully replenished before next disturbance.Community dominated by r-selected species, with low standing crop biomass and low nutrient availability.
44How Do Disturbance Characteristics Influence Succession? Large Magnitude + High IntensityRe-establishment of species populations requires long-distance migration from undisturbed areas.Succession is retarded by slow immigration rate.NPP recovers slowlyBiomass pool recover slowlyNutrient losses greater during slow recoveryCommunity dominated by r-selected species, with rapid dispersal ability for a longer period.
45How Do Disturbance Characteristics Influence Succession? Small Magnitude or Low IntensityRe-establishment of species populations from surviving individuals within / near disturbed area.Succession proceeds quickly.NPP recovers rapidly.Biomass pool recover rapidly.Nutrient losses quickly stop.Community dominated by species that are best able survive disturbance and compete for limited growing space (K-selected).
46Implications for Human Activities Human populations typically increase the frequency, magnitude, and intensity of disturbance.Entire landscapes dominated by r-selected species b/c succession never finishes before next disturbance.Depletion of biomass, soil organic matter, and nutrient pools.
47Implications for Human Activities Humans sometimes suppress disturbances (e.g. fire), increasing return time, but often with increase in magnitude and intensity.Entire landscapes become dominated by K- selected species, and accumulate biomass.Communities may become more susceptible to catastrophic disturbance (e.g., recent fires in western U.S.)
48Effects of Fire Suppression Eastern Hardwood Forest BeginsNumber of trees▲Logging
49Effects of Fire Suppression Western Conifer Forests Fuel build-up leads tocatastrophic crown fireNumber of treesFire SuppressionBeginsFrequent Low-Intensity Fires▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼
50Implications for Human Activities Humans depend on rapid growing, r-selected species for agriculture and forestry.Humans use disturbance to prevent succession and maintain open environments required by these pioneer species.Frequent human disturbance to maintain crop species can deplete soil organic matter and nutrient pools.